Variables Male (n=130) Female (n=264) p-value1
Duration of diabetes (yr), mean ± SD 10.9 ± 7.9 9.4 ± 7.1 0.062
Duration of smoking (yr), mean ± SD 30.4 ± 13.7 10.3 ± 4.5 0.022
    n (%) n (%) p-value 2
Education     <0.001
          Illiterate 45 (34.6) 171 (64.8)  
           Primary school 32 (24.6) 39 (14.8)  
          Secondary school 39 (30.0) 35 (13.3)  
          University 14 (10.8) 19 (7.2)  
Occupation     <0.001
         Retired 73 (56.2) 2 (0.8)  
         Employed 34 (26.2) 21 (8.0)  
         Unemployed 23 (27.7) 14 (5.3)  
         Housewife 0 227 (86.0)  
Smoking 24 (16.2) 3 (1.1) <0.001
Regularly visiting the diabetes center 119 (93.7) 249 (95.8)   0.377
  Physical activity      
               Active 84 (65.1) 154 (58.6) 0.210
               Inactive 45 (34.9) 109 (41.4)  
Abnormal percentage body fat 94 (73%) 254 (95%) <0.001
Retinopathy 25 (20.7) 28 (10.8) 0.008
Mode of diabetes diagnosis     0.005
               Screening 81 (63.3) 204 (78.8)  
                Symptomatic  34 (24.2) 34 (13.1)  
                 Incidental 16 (12.5) 21 (8.1)  
Treatment     0.302
                Lifestyle measures 5 (3.8) 10 (3.8)  
             Oral hypoglycaemic agents 98 (75.4) 185 (70.1)  
               Insulin added 27 (20.8) 69 (26.1)  
Michigan-history score      
Score <7 118 (91.5) 233 (88.6)  
Score ≥ 7 11 (8.5) 30 (11.4) 0.381
Michigan-sign score      
           Score <3 75 (61.0) 202 (61.0)  
Score ≥ 3 48 (37.0) 53 (20.1) <0.001
1P-value was based on independent samples t-test; 2P-values were based on Pearson’s chi-square test; n (%), number (percent) of patients. The percentage was calculated based on number of patients who had completed the test.
Table 2: Summary of the clinical variables in studied patients (n=394).