Time (hr) NON DIABETIC GROUPS DIABETIC GROUPS
PIO PIO+PIP (SDI) PIO+PIP (MDI) PIO PIO+PIP (SDI) PIO+PIP (MDI)
Mean glucose level (mg/dl) % glucose reduction Mean glucose level (mg/dl) Mean glucose level (mg/dl) % glucose reduction Mean glucose level (mg/dl) % glucose reduction Mean glucose level (mg/dl) % glucose reduction % glucose reduction Mean glucose level (mg/dl) % glucose reduction
0 106.75 ± 11.04 0 ± 0 116.72 ± 5.98 361.50 ± 29.03 0  ± 0 337.27 ± 16.42 0 ± 0 352.55 ± 12.45 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 108.24 ± 5.17 0 ± 0
0.5 101.22 ± 4.18 5.18 ± 1.36 109.08 ± 10.10 311.08 ± 16.15 13.94 ± 1.28 312.00 ± 21.19 7.49 ± 1.05 323.46 ± 21.08 8.25 ± 1.48 6.54 ± 1.29 102.11 ± 3.01 5.66 ± 1.19
1 92.56 ± 2.64 13.29 ± 2.80 95.37 ± 12.00 281.01 ± 8.11 22.26 ± 2.72 252.83 ± 14.5 25.03 ± 2.94 291.19 ± 10.12 17.40 ± 2.57 18.29 ± 3.41 89.55 ± 7.80 17.26 ± 2.42
2 82.06 ± 3.74 23.12 ± 2.19 84.42 ± 7.42 272.57 ± 13.08 24.60 ± 1.18 232.71 ± 12.10 31.00 ± 3.20 202.48 ± 6.08* 42.56 ± 4.83** 27.67 ± 4.13 78.52 ± 12.19 27.45 ± 4.02
4 78.25 ± 6.97 26.69 ± 4.62 81.74 ± 2.14 262.05 ± 8.90 27.51 ± 2.03 208.66 ± 11.39 38.13 ± 3.04* 190.00 ± 8.13* 46.10 ± 4.95** 29.96 ± 5.65 71.22 ± 2.51 34.20 ± 6.73
8 94.12 ± 8.91 11.83 ± 2.11 96.90 ± 4.90 258.78 ± 6.97 28.41 ± 2.11 219.39 ± 7.05 34.95 ± 2.65* 201.57 ± 2.14 42.82 ± 3.17** 16.98 ± 2.74 80.65 ± 3.69 25.48 ± 2.74*
24 104.89 ± 4.52 1.74 ± 0.25 112.53 ± 3.10 348.15 ± 19.18 3.69 ± 0.13 305.80 ± 14.3 9.33 ± 1.04* 298.63 ± 18.72 15.29 ± 1.12** 3.58 ± 0.39 98.75 ± 4.09 8.76 ± 0.74*
Mean ± SD; ***significant at p<0.001;**significant at p<0.01; *significant at p<0.05 compared to pioglitazone control; SDI: Single Dose Interaction; MDI: Multiple Dose Interaction; PIO: Pioglitazone; PIP: Piperine
Table 4: Mean blood glucose changes in non diabetic and diabetic rabbits after oral administration of pioglitazone, piperine, and their combinations (SDI&MDI).