Without biochemistry† n=10,727 With biochemistry†‡ n=1,072
  N Odds Ratio P (95% CI) N Odds Ratio P (95% CI)
Cases 370 (3%)     44 (4%)    
Risk factors            
Age   1.027 0.001 (1.016-1.039)   1.049 0.036 (1.003-1.098)
DM duration   1.060 0.001 (1.043-1.077)   1.138 0.001 (1.071-1.209)
AMIĀ  prior to DM 157 36.004 0.001 (24.441-53.038) 9 498.287 0.001 (34.367-7224.569)
Former stroke 873 1.203 0.273 (0.864-1.675) 104 0.633 0.462 (0.187-2.144)
Atrial fibrillation 897 1.272 0.278 (0.823-1.966) 117 1.039 0.959 (0.238-4.537)
Nephropathy 569 1.062 0.784 (0.690-1.636) 51 2.197 0.251 (0.573-8.423)
Neuropathy 415 1.079 0.770 (0.649-1.793) 34 2.799 0.128 (0.744-10.532)
Retinopathy 226 0.894 0.739 (0.464-1.725) 26 0.259 0.227 (0.029-2.319)
Peripheral artery disease 545 1.506 0.034 (1.032-2.198) 56 2.086 0.230 (0.628-6.924)
Heart failure 582 2.083 0.001 (1.459-2.973) 70 2.289 0.151 (0.740-7.084)
Male gender 5,884 1.310 0.031 (1.025-1.676) 534 1.443 0.417 (0.596-3.493)
Alcohol 380 1.418 0.238 (0.794-2.533) 45 0.741 0.807 (0.067-8.236)
Antidiabetic drugs            
Insulin 4,745 1.120 0.400 (0.860-1.459) 423 0.235 0.015 (0.073-0.757)
Biguanides 7,841 0.800 0.087 (0.619-1.033) 425 0.473 0.112 (0.188-1.191)
β-cell stimulating 4,050 1.130 0.348 (0.875-1.458) 847 0.719 0.490 (0.286-1.836)
Glitazones 144 0.643 0.541 (0.156-2.651)   -* -*
DPP-4 inhibitors 1,181 0.816 0.391 (0.512-1.299) 109 0.914 0.908 (0.199-4.200)
GLP-1: Liraglutide 1,600 0.386 0.001 (0.218-0.682) 180 -* -*
GLP-1: Exenatide 406 1.651 0.154(0.829-3.288) 16 2.096 0.555 (0.180-24.409)
Bloodpressure            
Hypertension 8,944 0.934 0.735 (0.631-1.384) 936 1.282 0.751 (0.276-5.959)
Atrial fibrillation            
Antiarrhythmic drugs 838 0.968 0.883 (0.628-1.493) 98 0.718 0.679 (0.149-3.451)
Cholesterol            
Statins 8,375 0.900 0.474 (0.674-1.201) 898 0.689 0.503 (0.232-2.047)
DM = diabetes mellitus; n = amount; CI = confidence interval; Bold indicate significance
*Predicts failure perfectly and not included in the analysis
†Adjusted for: previous AMI, age, DM duration, gender, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, alcohol related diagnosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, peripheral artery disease, usage of antiarrhythmic drugs, glitazones, vitamin K antagonists, heparin, pentasaccharides, argatroban, thrombocyte function inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, buprenorphine, tramadol, oxycodone, morphine, codeine, fentanyl, pethidine, glucocorticoids, bisphosphonates, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, antiepileptic drugs, statins, antidepressants, insulins, DPP-4 inhibitor, liraglutide, exenatide, biguanides, and β cell stimulants.
‡Adjusted for: LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, HbA1c, creatinine and triglycerides
Table 4: Multivariate analysis DM patients Analyses performed with and without the adjustment of biochemical variables Odds ratio shows the risk of developing AMI if the case has received a pharmaceutical drug prior to AMI occurrence.