Characteristic Estimate
    Age 70.6 (4.7)
Sex, %
Female 52.6
Male 47.4
Race/ethnicity, %
Caucasian 71.6
African American 4.1
Hispanic 0.2
Other 2.5
Unknown 21.7
Region, %
Midwest 21.1
Northeast 21.1
South 43.7
West 14.1
Plan type, %
Commercial 10.6
Medicare 54.7
Medicaid 0.0
Self-pay/other 0.4
Unknown 34.2
BMI kg/m2, 35.8 (6.5)
BMI categories, %
25.0–29.9 kg/m2 16.8
30.0–34.9 kg/m2 33.7
35.0–39.9 kg/m2 28.1
≥40.0 kg/m2 21.5
Comorbid conditions, %  
Retinopathy 0.2
Nephropathy 3.7
Neuropathy 1.7
Cerebrovascular 0.4
Cardiovascular 1.7
Peripheral vascular disease 0.2
Metabolic 0
Smoking status, %
Current smoker 3.3
Former smoker 37.5
Never smoked 21.7
Other/unknown 37.5
A1C, % 8.22
Weight,  kg 101.0(19.7)
Lipids mg/dl  
Total cholesterol 166.6(44.1)
HDL 43.6(12.6)
Blood pressure mmHg  
SBP 131.9(15.4)
DBP 73.9(9.1)
Table 1: Baseline Characteristics of Study Sample (N=517).