Figure 3: Ex-4 protects NPCs from glucolipotoxicity via a GLP-1R dependent pathway. NPCs were plated in the presence or absence of high glucose and palmitate (19 mM and 0.3 mM respectively). Prior to palmitate addition, cells were incubated with Ex-9-39 (100 nM) for 10 min before to Ex-4 (10 nM) exposure. Intracellular ATP levels were assessed after 24 hours. Values are shown as mean ± SEM (n=25-50). One way ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis post hoc test was used. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. *denotes P<0.05 compared with control, # denotes P<0.05 compared with P3.