Trial[follow-up] N Intervention Outcome measure Relative RR Absolute RR NNT p-value
Diabetic retinopathy
ACCORD-EYE [13][4 years] 2,856 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control Progression ≥3 steps of ETDRS, laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy 37% 3.1% 32 0.003
  1,263 Intensive vs. standard BP control 23% -1.6% - 62 0.29
ADVANCE [15,19] [5 years] 11,140 Intensive glycemic control New or worsening retinopathy 5% 0.3% 333 NR
[4.3 years]   Intensive vs. standard BP control   1% -0.1% -100 NR
VADT (14)[5.6 years] 1,791 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control Progression ≥2 steps of ETDRS 23% 5.1% 19 0.07
UKPDS* [11,12][Up to 12 years] 3,867 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control 2-step progression of ETDRS Retinal photocoagulation  21%29% 10.1%2.7% 1037 0.0150.003
  1,148 Intensive vs. standard BP control 2-step progression of ETDRS Retinal photocoagulation¬† 34%35% 17.3%4.0% 625 0.00380.023
Renal outcomes
ACCORD [16][5 years] 10,251 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control New-onset microalbuminuriaNew-onset macroalbuminuria 15%29% 3.1%1.7% 3258 0.00120.0003
ADVANCE [15,19][5 years] 11,140 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control New or worsening nephropathyNew onset microalbuminuria 21%9% 1.1%2.0% 9150 0.0060.02
[4.3 years]   Combination BP vs. standard control New or worsening nephropathyNew onset microalbuminuria 18%21% 0.6%4% 16725 0.055<0.0001
VADT [14][5.6 years] 1,791 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control Any increase in albuminuria Progression to macroalbuminuria 34%43% 4.7%2.2% 2145 0.030.04
UKPDS* [11,12][Up to 15 years] 3,867 Intensive vs. standard glycemic control Microalbuminuria 30% at 15 yr 11.9% at 15 yr 8 0.033
[Up to 9 years] 1,148 Intensive vs. standard BP control Urinary albumin ≥50 mg/L 29% at 6 yr13% at 9 yr 8.2% at 6 yr4.3% at 9 yr 1223 0.00850.33
NNT number needed to treat = 1/absolute risk reduction; NR not reported; RR risk reduction; * UKPDS enrolled newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients; all other studiesenrolled patients with longstanding type 2 diabetes; ACCORD Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ADVANCE Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease:Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; ETDRS Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; UKPDS United Kingdom Prospective DiabetesStudy; VADT Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial
Table 1: Effect of intensification of glucose or blood pressure control on progression of diabetic microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients, contd.