pioglitazone Metformin p
Number of subjects 22 15  
Sex (Male/Female) 14/8 5-Oct  
Age (years) 67.1 ± 10.1 66 ± 10.4 0.742
Duration of diabetes (years) 14.3 ± 9.1 15.1 ± 13.1 0.843
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22 ± 2.3 23.2 ± 1.7 0.102
Waist circumference (cm) 84.4 ± 7.4 87.4 ± 7.2 0.238
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.77 ± 0.20 0.79 ± 0.20 0.793
HbA1c (%) 7.9 ± 1.7 7.5 ± 1.0 0.332
DPP-4 (ng/mL) 774 ± 198 858 ± 199 0.211
Data are means ± SD. P values were calculated using Students t-tests. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c; DPP-4: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4
Table 1: Baseline characteristics of the patients and comparison of parameters between the pioglitazone and the metformin groups.