pioglitazone baseline 3 months 12 months
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22 ± 2.3 22.5 ± 2.2** 23.4 ± 2.6***
Waist circumference (cm) 84.4 ± 7.4 85.9 ± 7.4* 87.7 ± 8.5**
HbA1c (%) 7.9 ± 1.7 7.4 ± 1.7** 7.1 ± 1.2***
DPP-4 (ng/mL) 774 ± 198 827 ± 216* 847 ± 210*
metformin      
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.2 ± 1.7 23.3 ± 1.7 23.5 ± 2.1
Waist circumference (cm) 87.4 ± 7.2 87.6 ± 7.3 88.2 ± 7.3
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.0 6.9 ± 0.8* 6.9 ± 0.9*
DPP-4 (ng/mL) 858 ± 199 854 ± 229 846 ± 216
Data are means ± SD. P values were calculated using Wilcoxon tests.
HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c; DPP-4: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4.
*; p<0.05, **; p<0.01, ***; p<0.001
Table 2: Chronological changes in body weight, waist circumference, HbA1c and DPP-4.