Mean ± Standard deviation, N (%)
Total (N=557) Non-DM (N=456) DM
Total (N=101) Controlled (N=47) Uncontrolled (N=54)
Age, years 70.7 ± 5.3 70.6 ± 5.3 71.1 ± 5.1 70.7 ± 4.2 71.3 ± 5.7
Glucose, mg/dL 96.2 ± 20.4 91.0 ± 10.6 120.3 ± 33.5* 95.3 ± 9.5 140.8 ± 32.1*
SBP, mmHg 131.8 ± 16.7 131.8 ± 16.7 131.6 ± 17.0 130.5 ± 16.6 132.5 ± 17.5
DBP, mmHg 74.5 ± 9.9 74.9 ± 9.9 72.7 ± 10.0* 72.5 ± 9.2 73.0 ± 10.7
Sex          
Male 144 (25.9 %) 116 (25.4 %) 28 (27.7 %) 16 (34.0 %) 12 (22.2 %)
Female 413 (74.1 %) 340 (74.6 %) 73 (72.3 %) 31 (66.0 %) 42 (77.8 %)
BMIa          
<Q1 139 (25.0 %) 120 (26.3 %) 19 (18.8 %) 10 (21.3 %) 9 (16.7 %)
Q1-Q3 284 (51.0 %) 233 (51.1 %) 51 (50.5 %) 19 (40.4 %) 32 (59.3 %)
≥ Q3 134 (24.1 %) 103 (22.6 %) 31 (30.7 %) 18 (38.3 %) 13 (24.1 %)
Exercise          
Yes 343 (63.2 %) 274 (61.9 %) 69 (69.0 %) 35 (74.5 %) 34 (64.2 %)
No 200 (36.8 %) 169 (38.1 %) 31 (31.0 %) 12 (25.5 %) 19 (35.8 %)
Alcohol consumption          
Yes 121 (22.4 %) 96 (21.8 %) 25 (25.3 %) 12 (25.5 %) 13 (25.0 %)
No 419 (77.6 %) 345 (78.2 %) 74 (74.7 %) 35 (74.5 %) 39 (75.0 %)
Cotinine Level (μg/g creatinine)          
>400 31 (5.6 %) 27 (6.0 %) 4 (4.0 %) 2 (4.3 %) 2 (3.7 %)
≤ 400 518 (94.4 %) 422 (94.0 %) 96 (96.0 %) 44 (95.7 %) 52 (96.3 %)
Education years          
< 6 years 171 (30.7 %) 136 (29.8 %) 35 (34.7 %) 15 (31.9 %) 20 (37.0 %)
≥ 6 years 386 (69.3 %) 320 (70.2 %) 66 (65.3 %) 32 (68.1 %) 34 (63.0 %)
Hypertension          
Yes 279 (50.1 %) 216 (47.4 %) 63 (62.4 %)* 28 (59.6 %) 35 (64.8 %)
No 278 (49.9 %) 240 (52.6 %) 38 (37.6 %) 19 (40.4 %) 19 (35.2 %)
Abbreviations: DM: participants diagnosed as diabetes (under treatment or no treatment), or having fasting serum glucose level (FG) ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) at a visit; non-DM, otherwise; Uncontrolled DM, FG ≥ 110 mg/dL; controlled DM (FG ≤ 110 mg/dL) among DM participants; SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure
*Significant difference (P-value<0.05) between non-DM and DM group (marked on total DM) or between uncontrolled and controlled DM group (marked on uncontrolled DM).
aQuartile values of Body Mass Index (BMI) levels (kg/m2): Q1=23 and Q3=27.
Table 1: Baseline Characteristics of the Participants by state of Diabetes Mellitus (DM).