Environmental variables Mean (Standard Deviation)
  Total Non-DM DM
Total Controlled Uncontrolled
Weather          
Temperature,°C 17.4 (8.1) 17.3 (8.1) 18.0 (7.8) 19.4 (7.0) 17.0 (8.2)*
Sea-level Pressure, hPa 1013.5 (6.2) 1013.5 (6.2) 1013.3 (6.3) 1013.2 (6.3) 1013.4 (6.4)
Relative Humidity, % 62.5 (13.1) 62.7 (13.1) 61.3 (13.0) 63.2 (13.7) 60.1 (12.4)
Airpollution          
PM10, μg/m3 41.6 (15.5) 41.8 (15.6) 40.7 (15.1) 37.0 (13.5) 43.1 (15.7)*
PM2.5, μg/m3 22.3 (7.6) 22.5 (7.7) 21.8 (7.2) 20.2 (6.6) 22.8 (7.4)*
PM10-2.5, μg/m3 19.3 (9.5) 19.4 (9.5) 18.9 (9.6) 16.7 (8.4) 20.4 (10.1)*
NO2, ppb 35.7 (7.4) 35.8 (7.5) 35.0 (7.2) 33.2 (6.6) 36.1 (7.3)*
O3, ppb 30.6 (11.2) 30.5 (11.3) 31.4 (10.9) 31.8 (10.2) 31.1 (11.4)
SO2, ppb 3.8 (1.5) 3.9 (1.5) 3.7 (1.4) 3.3 (1.2) 3.9 (1.4)*
CO, 10 ppm 5.7 (1.7) 5.8 (1.7) 5.6 (1.6) 5.2 (1.5) 5.8 (1.6)*
Abbreviations: PM10: Particulate Matter of<10 μm in diameter; PM2.5: Particulate Matter of<2.5 μm in diameter; IQR: Interquartile Range; NO2: Nitrogen Dioxide; SO2: Sulfur Dioxide; O3: Ozone; CO: Carbon Monoxide; DM: Diabetes Mellitus defined as a self-reported history of doctor-diagnosed disease or glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L).
*Significant difference (P-value<0.05) between non-DM and DM group (marked on total DM) or between uncontrolled and controlled DM group (marked on uncontrolled DM).
Table 2: Descriptive statistics of environmental variables by state of diabetes mellitus (DM).