Variables Diabetes (n = 302) Non-diabetes (n = 127)
Poor (n = 125) Good (n = 177) Pvalue Poor (n = 33) Good (n = 94) Pvalue
Female, n (%) 41 (33.1) 33 (18.8) 0.005 11 (33.3) 14 (14.9) 0.02
Age, y 65.5 ± 9.8 64.0 ± 11.0 0.23 67.9 ± 10.0 63.6 ± 10.2 0.04
Body mass index, Kg/m2 25.1 ± 3.5 24.8 ± 3.3 0.43 26.5 ± 3.0 24.9 ± 3.2 0.01
Smoke, n (%) 50 (40.0) 60 (33.9) 0.28 13 (39.4) 43 (45.7) 0.53
Hypertension, n (%) 77 (61.6) 133 (75.1) 0.01 18 (54.5) 69 (73.4) 0.045
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 70 (56.0) 75 (42.4) 0.02 20 (60.6) 34 (36.2) 0.02
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 137.5 ± 18.3 140.9 ± 16.5 0.09 139.5 ± 20.0 140.8 ± 21.1 0.75
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 82.8 ± 10.5 85.0 ± 8.7 0.05 83.4 ± 13.3 83.9 ± 9.7 0.82
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L 6.0 ± 2.0 5.7 ± 1.6 0.15 5.3 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 0.6 0.03
HbA1c, % 6.7 ± 1.3 6.5 ± 1.6 0.30 5.9 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.4 0.09
Severity of coronary artery disease, n (%)     0.10     0.68
1-vessel 29 (23.2) 26 (14.7)   5 (15.2) 11 (11.7)  
2-vessel 35 (28.0) 65 (36.7)   14 (42.4) 35 (37.2)  
3-vessel 61 (48.8) 86 (48.6)   14 (42.4) 48 (51.1)  
Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.9 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.3 0.37 1.8 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.9 0.63
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.5 ± 1.5 4.3 ± 1.2 0.29 3.9 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.2 0.16
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 0.99 ± 0.25 1.05 ± 0.29 0.04 0.93 ± 0.21 1.02 ± 0.25 0.07
LDL-choleterol, mmol/L 2.7 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.0 0.07 2.5 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.1 0.32
Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 5.5 ± 1.7 5.4 ± 1.5 0.46 5.1 ± 1.8 5.1 ± 1.9 0.92
Uric acid, μmol/L 338 ± 82 325 ± 83 0.17 345 ± 62 345 ± 90 1.00
Creatinine,μmol/L 81 (71 ~ 93) 72 (64 ~ 85) <0.001 85 (76 ~91) 79 (65 ~ 92) 0.12
Cystatin C, mg/L 1.07 (0.85 ~ 1.14) 0.80 (0.69 ~ 0.90) < 0.001 1.12 (0.81 ~ 1.24) 0.86 (0.68 ~ 1.12) 0.002
GFRMDRD, mL/min/1.73m2 86.3 (71.9 ~ 99.5) 100.0 (85.0 ~ 119.1) < 0.001 83.2 (71.6 ~ 90.7) 95.9 (77.3 ~ 114.9) 0.006
GFREPI, mL/min/1.73m2 85.8 (71.1 ~ 96.0) 95.0 (83.3 ~ 102.6) < 0.001 78.7 (68.6 ~ 90.3) 93.0 (76.1 ~ 101.9) 0.004
GFRCYS, mL/min/1.73m2 68.9 (61.5 ~ 94.4) 101.6 (84.5 ~ 111.2) < 0.001 58.9 (55.8 ~ 96.6) 97.1 (65.8 ~ 111.1) < 0.001
Medication, n (%)            
ACE inhibitor/ARB 69 (55.2) 104 (58.8) 0.54 12 (36.4) 40 (42.6) 0.53
β-blocker 54 (42.7) 71 (39.8) 0.59 17 (51.5) 36 (38.3) 0.19
Calcium channel blocker 35 (28.2) 47 (26.7) 0.78 9 (27.3) 17 (18.1) 0.26
Nitrates 74 (59.2) 113 (64.2) 0.41 13 (39.4) 42 (44.7) 0.60
Statins* 69 (55.2) 104 (58.8) 0.54 12 (36.4) 52 (55.3) 0.06
Antidiabetic therapy 98 (78.4) 149 (84.2) 0.20 / / /
Data are mean ± SD or median (25th ~ 75th percentiles) or number (%)
ACE, angiotension converting enzyme; ARB, angiotension receptor blocker; GFR, glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c, glycoseylated hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein
*Statins: mainly simvastatin, pravastatin and atorvastatin.
Table 1: Baseline characteristics and biochemical assessment in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with poor and good collateralization.