No diabetes Diabetes, no insulin Diabetes, + insulin p values
  n = 674 n = 289 n = 99  
Age, year, mean ± SD 76.1 ± 8.7 73.8 ± 8.0 71.2 ± 7.6** <0.0001
Female, n/total (%) 525/674 (78%) 208.289 (72%) 74/99 (75%) N.S
African Americans, n/total (%) 195/671 (29%) 118/287 (41%) 53/99 (54%) <0.0001
High School Graduate and above, n/total (%) 488/670 (73%) 170/287 (59%) 54/99 (55%) <0.0001
ApoE4, n/total (%) 154/671 (23%) 63/286 (22%) 28/98 (29%) N.S
BMI, Mean ± SD 29.8 ± 7.8 34.0 ± 8.8 37.1 ± 9.6** <0.0001
Cardiovascular disease, n/total (%) 237/661 (36%) 140/281 (50%) 57/98 (58%) <0.0001
Stroke, n/total (%) 122/663 (18%) 60/284 (28%) 30/99 (30%) 0.02
Glucose, mg/L, mean ± SD 97.7 ± 11.0 139.0 ± 46.7 142.4 ± 60.9 <0.0001
Creatinine, mg/dL, mean ± SD 1.04 ± 1.03 1.06 ± 0.76 1.43 ± 1.19*** <0.0001
Cholesterol, mg/dL, Mean ± SD 189.5 ± 41.3 178.4 ± 43.2 169.3 ± 50.2* <0.0001
LDL, mg/dL, mean ± SD 110.7 ± 34.6 101.6 ± 36.0 96.9 ± 40.2 <0.0001
HDL, mg/dL, mean ± SD 52.5 ± 15.3 45.3 ± 12.4 42.5 ± 12.0* <0.0001
CRP, mg/L, median (Q1, Q3) 3.0 (1.2, 8.0) 3.8 (1.6, 8.9) 8.0 (2.7, 14.8)** <0.0001
Diabetes status        
Duration, n/total (%): -      
<1 year   22/240 (9.2%) 0/99 (0%) <0.0001
     1-4 years   62/240 (25.8%) 6/99 (6.1%)  
     5-9 years   62/240 (25.8%) 18/99 (18.2%)  
     10-20 years   60/240 (25.0%) 38/99 (38.4%)  
>20 years   34/240 (14.2%) 37/99 (37.4%)  
Metformin, n/total (%) - 113/289 (39%) 22/99 (22%) 0.002
Sulfonylureas, n/total (%) - 151/289 (52%) 10/99 (10%) <0.0001
Glitazones, n/total (%) - 28/289 (10%) 8/99 (8%) N.S
Meglit, n/total (%) - 3/289 (1%) 1/99 (1%) N.S
Peptides        
Insulin, pM/L, median (Q1, Q3) 69.3 (41.5, 110.6) 94.9 (62.4, 166.3) 174.9 (112.9, 240.0)*** <0.0001
Amylin, pM/dL, median (Q1, Q3) 20.0 (11.0, 36.2) 25.2 (13.2, 50.6) 15.0 (4.9, 33.8)*** <0.0001
Subjects are divided into three subgroups: those who did not have diabetes, diabetics without insulin and with insulin treatment. Mean ± SD with ANOVA test or n/total with Chi-Square test is used to describe the normal distributions and comparisons of age, diseases, kidney function assessed by the measurement of creatinine and the lipid biomarkers across three subgroups. P values for the statistical significance are described.
Mean ± SD with T-test is used to describe the distributions and comparisons of continuous variables between two diabetic subgroups. P values for the statistical significance are shown with *p<0.05; **p<0.001; ***p<0.0001
BMI=Body Mass Index; LDL=low density lipoprotein; HDL=high density lipoprotein; CRP=C-reactive protein
Table 1: Comparisons of demographic information, vascular diseases and lipid profiles across amylin quartiles.