Characteristics Control subjects T2DM subjects
Male
N (%)
Female
N (%)
Total
N (%)
P value Male
N (%)
Female
N (%)
Total
N (%)
P value
Education Level Illiterate 71 (7.8) 85 (11.2) 156 (9.4) .000 51 (5.4) 100 (14.2) 151 (9.1) .000
Primary 302 (33.2) 161 (21.3) 463 (27.8) 211 (22.3) 207 (29.4) 418 (25.3)
Secondary 162 (17.8) 123 (16.3) 285 (17.1) 272 (28.7) 171 (24.3) 443 (26.8)
Technical 44 (4.8) 16 (2.1) 60 (3.6) 52 (5.5) 23 (3.3) 75 (4.5)
University degree 332 (36.4) 371 (49.1) 703 (42.2) 361 (38.1) 203 (28.8) 564 (34.2)
Economic status High Class 56 (6.2) 24 (3.2) 80 (4.8) .001 142 (15.0) 43 (6.1) 185 (11.2) .000
Middle Class 680 (75.1) 618 (82.1) 1298 (78.2) 691 (73.0) 583 (82.8) 1274 (77.2)
Low Class 170 (18.8) 111 (14.7) 281 (16.9) 113 (11.9) 78 (11.1) 191 (11.6)
Cooking Media used Refined oil 304 (33.4) 178 (23.5) 482 (28.9) .000 284 (30.0) 209 (29.7) 493 (29.9) .022
Dalda (Hydrogenated fat) 66 (7.3) 61 (8.1) 127 (7.6) 341 (36.0) 207 (29.4) 548 (33.2)
Mustard oil 212 (23.3) 132 (17.5) 344 (20.6) 114 (12.0) 91 (12.9) 205 (12.4)
Desi Ghee (Clarified Butter) 30 (3.3) 16 (2.1) 46 (2.8) 22 (2.3) 14 (2.0) 36 (2.2)
Olive oil 11 (1.2) 18 (2.4) 29 (1.7) 30 (3.2) 28 (4.0) 58 (3.5)
Mixed oil 287 (31.5) 351 (46.4) 638 (38.3) 156 (16.5) 155 (22.0) 311 (18.8)
Alcohol Consumption Teetotaler 606 (66.5) 747 (98.8) 1353 (81.2) .000 613 (64.7) 689 (97.9) 1302 (78.9) .000
Occasionally 158 (17.3) 8 (1.1) 166 (10.0) 149 (15.7) 8 (1.1) 157 (9.5)
Moderately 47 (5.2) 1 (0.1) 48 (2.9) 97 (10.2) 3 (0.4) 100 (6.1)
Heavy 34 (3.7) 0 (0.0) 34 (2.0) 64 (6.8) 4 (0.6) 68 (4.1)
Left Alcohol 66 (7.2) 0 (0.0) 66 (4.0) 24 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 24 (1.5)
Physical Activity  Sedentary 51 (5.6) 68 (9.0) 119 (7.1) .000 57 (6.0) 67 (9.5) 124 (7.5) .000
Moderately active 401 (44.0) 516 (68.3) 917 (55.0) 577 (60.9) 529 (75.1) 1106 (67.0)
Very active 459 (50.4) 172 (22.8) 631 (37.9) 313 (33.1) 108 (15.3) 421 (25.5)
Family History of Diabetes None 789 (86.6) 568 (75.1) 1357 (81.4) .000 391 (41.3) 295 (41.9) 686 (41.6) .045
One Parent 64 (7.0) 118 (15.6) 182 (10.9) 94 (9.9) 97 (13.8) 191 (11.6)
Both Parents 4 (0.4) 7 (0.9) 11 (0.7) 16 (1.7) 16 (2.3) 32 (1.9)
Siblings affected (ASP) 28 (3.1) 37 (4.9) 65 (3.9) 176 (18.6) 132 (18.8) 308 (18.7)
One Parent + ASP 21 (2.3) 20 (2.6) 41 (2.5) 198 (20.9) 112 (15.9) 310 (18.8)
Both Parents +ASP 5 (0.5) 6 (0.8) 11 (0.7) 72 (7.6) 52 (7.4) 124 (7.5)
Table 1: Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of study subjects.