Variables Men Women
Total N (%) Diabetes N (%) χ2p value Total N (%) Diabetes N (%) χ2p value
Milk or curd     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 26307(46.4) 391(1.5)   40366(40.5) 492(1.2)  
  Weekly 11554(20.4) 117(1.0)   15071(15.1) 138(0.9)  
  Occasionally 14757(26.0) 138(0.9)   32918(33.1) 302(0.9)  
  Never 4114(7.3) 74(1.8)   11202(11.3) 117(1.0)  
Pulses and beans     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 29863(52.6) 437(1.5)   52440(52.7) 538(1.0)  
  Weekly 21705(38.3) 219(1.0)   36597(36.8) 360(1.0)  
  Occasionally 4660(8.2) 51(1.1)   9663(9.7) 131(1.4)  
  Never 505(0.9) 13(2.6)   852(0.9) 20(2.3)  
Green leafy vegetables     0.149     0.090
  Daily 33982(59.9) 453(1.3)   64095(64.4) 674(1.1)  
  Weekly 19270(34.0) 231(1.2)   28606(28.7) 286(1.0)  
  Never/ Occasionally 3480(6.1) 35(1.0)   6840(6.9) 89(1.3)  
Fruits     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 7320(12.9) 125(1.7)   12789(12.9) 206(1.6)  
  Weekly 19368(34.1) 255(1.3)   26731(26.9) 276(1.0)  
  Occasionally 28484(50.2) 296(1.0)   56336(56.6) 503(0.9)  
  Never 1546(2.7) 44(2.8)   3631(3.6) 63(1.7)  
Eggs     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 2931(5.2) 56(1.9)   3475(3.5) 60(1.7)  
  Weekly 20682(36.5) 317(1.5)   28778(28.9) 363(1.3)  
  Occasionally 19786(34.9) 201(1.0)   32635(32.8) 287(0.9)  
  Never 13330(23.5) 146(1.1)   34647(34.8) 340(1.0)  
Fish     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 3706(6.5) 90(2.4)   6505(6.5) 149(2.3)  
  Weekly 14414(25.4) 238(1.7)   22070(22.2) 304(1.4)  
  Occasionally 21818(38.5) 225(1.0)   34242(34.4) 264(0.8)  
  Never 16782(29.6) 167(1.0)   36724(36.9) 331(0.9)  
Chicken or meat     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Daily 706(1.2) 6(0.9)   839(0.8) 14(1.7)  
  Weekly 15609(27.5) 269(1.7)   21938(22.0) 292(1.3)  
  Occasionally 26135(46.1) 291(1.1)   42222(42.0) 423(1.0)  
  Never 14272(25.2) 155(1.1)   34537(34.7) 320(0.9)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)     <0.0001     <0.0001
≤18.5 (Underweight) 15358(28.7) 96(0.8)   30663(32.1) 119(0.5)  
18.5-22.9 (Normal) 26616(49.8) 288(1.0)   41219(43.2) 319(0.7)  
23.0-24.9 (Overweight) 5635(10.5) 128(2.3)   9454(9.9) 153(1.6)  
≥25.0 (Obese) 5881(11.0) 178(3.0)   14169(14.8) 437(3.1)  
Current Tobacco smoking     0.498     0.514
  No 35422(62.4) 450(1.3)   97738(98.2) 1030(1.1)  
  Yes 21321(37.6) 270(1.3)   1835(1.8) 19(1.0)  
Alcohol consumption     0.362     0.020
  Never 35965(63.4) 436(1.2)   97101(97.5) 1037(1.1)  
  Occasionally 13054(23.0) 180(1.4)   1067(1.1) 7(0.7)  
  Once a week 5676(10.0) 74(1.3)   1010(1.0) 3(0.3)  
  Almost everyday 2048(3.6) 31(1.5)   396(0.4) 1(0.3)  
Frequency of watching TV     <0.0001     <0.0001
   Not at all 10517(18.5) 112(1.1)   35399(35.6) 255(0.7)  
   Less than once a week 11420(20.1) 95(0.8)   10438(10.5) 96(0.9)  
   At least once a week 9081(16.0) 114(1.3)   10952(11.0) 100(0.9)  
   Almost everyday 25717(45.3) 400(1.6)   42763(43.0) 598(1.4)  
Age     <0.0001     <0.0001
  20-29 22842(40.3) 91(0.4)   43196(43.4) 113(0.3)  
  30-39 19045(33.6) 179(0.9)   33522(33.7) 342(1.0)  
  40-49 14855(26.2) 450(3.0)   22856(23.0) 594(2.6)  
Educationa     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Illiterate 11607(20.5) 144(1.2)   45113(45.3) 338(0.7)  
  Literate, < middle school 10030(17.7) 111(1.1)   14463(14.5) 192(1.3)  
   Middle school completed 26783(47.2) 320(1.2)   31665(31.8) 435(1.4)  
  High school complete and above 8311(14.7) 146(1.8)   83284(8.4) 83(1.0)  
Religion     0.099     <0.0001
  Hindu 46727(82.3) 575(1.2)   80648(81.0) 792(1.0)  
  Muslim 6841(12.1) 103(1.5)   12940(13.0) 164(1.3)  
  Christian 1290(2.3) 19(1.5)   2526(2.5) 56(2.2)  
  Sikhs 1009(1.8) 17(1.7)   1836(1.8) 21(1.1)  
  Othersb 876(1.5) 6(0.7)   1624(1.6) 16(1.0)  
Caste/tribec     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Scheduled caste 10670(18.8) 131(1.2)   18260(18.3) 173(0.9)  
  Scheduled tribes 4732(8.3) 24(0.5)   8002(8.0) 30(0.4)  
  Other backward class 22116(39.0) 256(1.2)   38860(39.0) 368(0.9)  
  Others 17414(30.7) 270(1.6)   31440(31.6) 437(1.4)  
  Missing caste 1810(3.2) 40(2.2)   3011(3.0) 41(1.4)  
Wealth indexd     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Lowest 9103(16.0) 71(0.8)   17286(17.4) 71(0.4)  
  Second 10205(18.0) 100(1.0)   18546(18.6) 141(0.8)  
  Middle 11533(20.3) 80(0.7)   19698(19.8) 152(0.8)  
  Fourth 12634(22.3) 154(1.2)   20925(21.0) 275(1.3)  
  Highest 13266(23.4) 316(2.4)   23119(23.2) 411(1.8)  
Place of residence     <0.0001     <0.0001
  Urban 20779(36.6) 347(1.7)   33355(33.5) 551(1.7)  
  Rural 35963(63.4) 373(1.0)   66219(66.5) 498(0.8)  
             
Total percent, Diabetes   1.3     1.1  
Numbere 56742 720   99574 1050  
aEducation: illiterate (0 years of education), literate but less than middle school complete (1–5 years of education), middle school complete (6–8 years of education), high school complete or more (9+ years of education).
bOthers include Buddhist, Jain, Jewish, Zoroastrian.
cScheduled castes and scheduled tribes are identified by the Government of India as socially and economically backward and needing protection from social injustice and exploitation. Other backward class is a diverse collection of intermediate castes that were considered low in the traditional caste hierarchy but are clearly above scheduled castes. Others is thus a default residual group that enjoys higher status in the caste hierarchy.
d
The wealth index is based on following assets in the household: household electrification, type of windows, drinking water source, type of toilet facility, type of flooring, material of exterior walls, type of roofing, house ownership, ownership of a bank or post office account, and ownership of a mattress, a pressure cooker, a chair, a cot/ bed, a table, an electric fan, a radio/transistor, a black and white television, a colour television, a sewing machine, a mobile telephone, any other telephone, a computer, a refrigerator, a watch or clock, a bicycle, a motorcycle or scooter, an animal-drawn cart, a car, a water pump, a thresher, and a tractor.
e Number of men and women varies slightly for individual variables depending on the number of missing values.
Table 1: Sample distribution and prevalence of diabetes (%) among men (n=56,742) and women (n=99,574) aged 20-49 according to frequency of consumption of specific food items and other selected risk factors and background characteristics, India 2005-06.