DM

Control (n=45)

p-value1*

p-value2**

No DMR (n=54)

NPDR (n=45)

PDR (n=25)

All DM (n=124)

Age (yrs) Mean ± SD 63.26 ± 13.81 61.93 ± 10.89 63.60 ± 7.96 62.85 ± 11.73 59.00 ± 13.07 0.226 0.087
Range 33-88 39-82 49-78 33-88 32-80    
Gender (Male:Female) 18:36 18:26 5:20 41:82 17:28 0.367*** 0.057***
Duration of DM (yrs) Mean ± SD 7.17 ± 5.85 11.80 ± 8.36 15.96 ± 6.83 10.62 ± 7.77 0 0.000 0.000
Range 0-20 1-30 3-25 0-30      
Fasting serum glucose (mg/dl) Mean ± SD 167.28  ±  64.47 201.31 ± 76.92 259.84 ± 119.55 198.29 ± 88.84 N/A 0.067 N/A
Range 89-356 121-410 104-565 89-565      
HBA1c (%) Mean ± SD 7.64 ± 1.74 7.99 ± 1.95 8.38 ± 1.75 7.92 ± 1.83 N/A 0.270 N/A
Range 5.4-11.9 5.7-13.3 5.7-11.8 5.4-13.3      
History of PRP (number of eyes) 0 15 14 29 0 0.000*** N/A
* ANOVA test between groups
** Two-tailed t-test between all DM and control group
*** χ2 test. DMR: DM Retinopathy; NPDR: Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; PDR: Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; SD: Standard Deviation; N/A: Not Available; PRP: Pan Retinal Photocoagulation.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and normal subjects.