T2DM and OSAS
(n=15)
OSAS alone
(n=26)
p value
Demographics      
Gender (female/male) 4/11 4/22  
Age (yr) 58 ± 9 58± 13 n.s
Body mass index (kg/m²) 39 ± 7 32 ± 5 <0.01
Medical history      
Hypertension 14 (93) 18 (69) n.s.
Hypercholesterolemia 12 (80) 10 (38) <0.05
Coronary artery disease (67) 11 (42) n.s.
Arrhythmia 3 (20) 4 (15) n.s.
Stroke 2 (13) 0 (0) n.s.
Myocardial infarction 5 (33) 7 (27) n.s.
COPD 4 (19) 2 (10) n.s.
Medication      
Insulin 8 (53) -  
Oral antidiabetic drugs 11 (73) -  
Nitrates 2 (13) 1 (4) n.s.
β-blockers 12 (80) 13 (50) n.s.
Renin inhibitor 0 (0) 1 (4) n.s.
ACE inhibitors 10 (67) 7 (27) <0.05
Angiotensin II receptor blockers 2 (13) 6 (23) n.s.
Diuretics 8 (53) 8 (31) n.s.
Calcium channel blockers 6 (40) 8 (31) n.s.
α-blockers 1 (7) 2 (8) n.s.
Cardiac and renal function      
LVEF () 60 ± 8 63 ± 6 n.s.
GFR (ml/min) 144 ± 48 120 ± 48 n.s.
Polysomnography (baseline)      
AHI (n/h) 57 ± 18 48 ± 21 n.s.
Oxygen saturation nadir () 70 ± 14 72 ± 13 n.s.
Data are presented as mean ± SD or No (%). ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; AHI = apnea-hypopnea-index; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction
Table 1: Clinical Characteristics and Sleep Parameters.