Year of discovery Gene/ SNP Name of the gene(s) Allele Chromosome  loci Disease Mechanism Study OR (95% CI) Reference
2000 PPARG/ rs18012824 peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ gene C/G  3p25.2 Isulinsensitvity GWAS 1.14 (1.08–1.20) 27-29
2003 KCNJ11/ ABCC8/ rs5219 / rs757110 potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 T/C
G/T
 11p15.1 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.15 (1.09-1.21) 30-31
2006 TCF7L2/ rs7903146 Transcription factor 7 like 2 T/C  10q25.2 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.37 (1.28-1.47) 33-43
2007 WFS1/ rs1801214 Wolfram syndrome 1 G/A  4p16.1  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.13 (1.07–1.18) 50
2007 CDKN2A/2B/ rs10811661 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A/2B T/C  9p21.3 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.20 (1.14–1.25) 54-57
2007 CDKAL1/
rs7754840
CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1 C/G  6p22.3 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.12 (1.08–1.16) 54-57
2007 SLC30A8/ rs13266634 solute carrier family 30,member 8 C/T  8q24.11 Decreased β -cell function, GWAS 1.12 (1.07–1.16) 52-53
2007 HHEX/IDE
rs1111875
hematopoietically expressed homeobox- insulin-degrading enzyme C/T  10q23.33 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS 1.13 (1.08–1.17) 52-53
2007 HNF1B (TCF2) /rs757210 Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (Transcription factor 2) A/G  17q12  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.12 (1.07–1.18) 51
2007 FTO/ rs8050136 Fat mass and obesity-associated protein  A/C  16q12.2 obesity, Increased triglycerides and cholesterol GWAS meta-analysis 1.15 (1.09–1.22) 71-72
2007 IGF2BP2/ rs4402960 insulin-like growth factor 2 binding protein 2 T/G  3q28 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.17 (1.10–1.25) 54-57
 2008 CDC123/CAMK1D/ rs12779790 cell division cycle 123 homolog (S. cerevisiae)/ calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID G/A  10p13 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.11 (1.07–1.14) 64-65
2008 JAZF1/ rs864745 juxta-posed with another zinc finger gene 1 T/C  7p15.1 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.10 (1.07–1.13) 64-65
2008 TSPAN8/LGR5/ rs7961581 tetraspanin8/ Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 C/T  12q21.1  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 64-65
2008 THADA/ rs7578597 thyroid adenoma associated T/C  2p21 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.15 (1.10–1.20) 64-65
2008 ADAMTS9/ rs4607103 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9 C/T  3p14.1 Decreased insulin sensitivity GWAS meta-analysis 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 64-65
2008 NOTCH2/ rs10923931 Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 2 T/G  1p11.2 Unknown (Membrane receptor) GWAS meta-analysis 1.13 (1.08–1.17) 64-65
2008  KCNQ1/ rs2237892 /
rs231362
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1   C/T
G/A
 11p15.5 Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis   1.4 (1.34–1.47)
1.08 (1.06–1.10)
66
2009 IRS1/ rs2943641 Insulin receptor substrate 1 C/T  2q36.3 Increased insulin resistance GWAS 1.19 (1.13–1.25) 66
2010 DGKB-TMEM195/ rs2191349 Diacylglycerol kinase beta- Alkylglycerolmonooxygenase T/G  7p21.2 Decreased β -cell function, increased fasting glucose GWAS meta-analysis 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 67
   
   
2010 GCK/ rs4607517 glucokinase A/G  7p13  Insulin sensitivity GWAS meta-analysis 1.07 (1.05–1.10) 67
2010 GCKR/ rs780094 Glucokinase regulatory protein C/T  2p23.3 Increased insulin resistance GWAS meta-analysis 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 67
2010 PROX1/ rs340874 prosperohomeobox 1 C/T  1q32.3 Decreased β -cell function, increased fasting glucose GWAS meta-analysis 1.07 (1.05–1.09) 67
2010 ADCYS/ rs11708067 Adenylatecyclase 5 A/G  3q21.1 Decreased insulin sensitivity GWAS meta-analysis 1.12 (1.09–1.15) 67
2010 DUSP9/ rs5945326 dual specificity phosphatase 9 G/A  Xq28  Phosphatase GWAS meta-analysis 1.27 (1.18–1.37) 66
2010 BCL11A/ rs243021 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (zinc finger protein) (BCL11A), transcript variant 1 A/G  2p16.1  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.08 (1.06–1.10) 66
2010 ZBED3/ rs4457053 Zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 3 G/A  5q13.3  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.08 (1.06–1.11) 66
2010  KLF14/ rs972283 Krueppel-like factor 14 G/A  7q32.3  Insulin action GWAS meta-analysis 1.07 (1.05–1.10) 66
2010 TP53INP1/ rs896854 Tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 1 T/C  8q22.1  Unknown GWAS meta-analysis 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 66
2010  CHCHD9/ rs13292136  Putative coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein CHCHD2P9  C/T  9q21.31  Unknown GWAS meta-analysis 1.11 (1.07–1.15) 66
2010 CENTD2/ARAP1/ rs1552224  ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1  A/C  11q13.4  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.14 (1.11–1.17) 66
2010  HMGA2/ rs1531343 High mobility group protein HMGI-C C/G  12q14.3  Transcriptional regulator GWAS meta-analysis 1.10 (1.07–1.14) 66
2010  HNF1A/ rs7957197 Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha T/A  12q24.31  Pancreatic and liver transcriptional regulator GWAS meta-analysis 1.07 (1.05–1.10) 66
2010  ZFAND6/ rs11634397 AN1-type zinc finger protein 6 G/A  15q25.1  Beta-cell dysfunction GWAS meta-analysis 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 66
2010  PRC1/ rs8042680 Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 A/C  15q26.1 Unknown ( Cytokinesis regulator) GWAS meta-analysis 1.07 (1.05–1.09) 66
2010 MTNR1B/ rs10830963  Melatonin receptor type 1B  G/C  11q14.3 Decreased β -cell function, , increased fasting glucose GWAS meta-analysis 1.09 (1.06–1.12) 66, 68, 69, 70
Table 1: T2D loci reaching statistical significance identified by GWAS and GWAS meta-analysis.