T1DM N=4092 Reference group N=905 565
  Primipara N=1851 Multipara N=2241 P-value Primipara N=402 338 Multipara N=503 227 P-value
Preeclampsia 396 (21.4) 223 (10.0) < 0.001 16 751(4.2) 8201 (1.6) < 0.001
Gestational  hypertension 39 (2.1) 34 (1.5) 0.156 4492 (1.1) 3307 (0.7) < 0.001
Major malformation 73 (3.9) 96 (4.3) 0.586 7402 (1.8) 8635 (1.7) < 0.001
Perinatal mortality 31 (1.7) 16 (0.7) 0.004 2319 (0.6) 1628 (0.3) < 0.001
Preterm delivery 450 (24.3) 466 (20.8) 0.007 24 653(6.9) 20 087(4.0) < 0.001
SGA 84 (4.5) 54 (2.4) < 0.001 55 248 (13.7) 37 262 (7.4) < 0.001
  LGA   782 (42.3)   1231 (54.9)   < 0.001   29 570 (7.4)   66 689 (13.3)   < 0.001
Late neonatal death 3 (0.2) 5 (0.2) 0.736 171 (0.04) 199 (0.04) 0.489
*Preterm birth: birth before 37 completed weeks. SGA/LGA: small/large for gestational age. Late neonatal death: death after the first week but within the first 28 days of life.
*Comparisons were made using the Chi-square test and the Fischer’s exact test as appropriate.
Table 2: Outcome variables in numbers and percentages (%).