Characteristic Type 1 Type 2 Monogenic
Genetics Polygenic Polygenic Monogenic
Age of onset 6 months to young adulthood Usually pubertal (or later)   Often post pubertal except Glucokinase and neonatal diabetes
Clinical presentation
Most often acute, rapid  

Variable; from slow, mild (often insidious) to severe
Variable (may be incidental in glucokinase)
Associations
Autoimmunity
Ketosis
Yes
Common  
No
Uncommon  
No
Common in neonatal diabetes, rare in other forms
Obesity
Population
Increased frequency Population frequency
Acanthosis nigricans
Frequency
(% of all diabetes
in young people)
Parent with diabetes
No Usually 90%+ 2-4% Yes Most countries 80% No 1-3% 90%
Table 3: Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and monogenic diabetes in children and adolescents. Adapted from Craig ME [29].