Probiotic Effects on   References
Dietary Factors Insulin Signaling Inflammation Molecular Effects
Phylum Actinobacteria
Genus
Bifidobacterium
↓ HFD
↓ Obesity
↓ T2D
↓ Plasma glucose ↓ Insulin resistance
B. animalis
Anti-inflammatory
B. animalis
B. brevis
B. infantis
↑ IRS1
↑Akt
↑ ERK
↑ FA (B. animalis)
↑Butyrate
B. brevis, B. infantis, B. longum)
↑ EPAs (B. brevis)
[23,50,205-210]
Phylum Firmicutes
Genus
Lactobacillus
↓ in T2D
L. reuteri
L. acidophilus
L. casei
L. plantarum
L. rhamnosus
↓ Plasma glucose
L. reuteri
L. acidophilus
L. casei
L. plantarum
↓ Insulin resistance
L. reuteri
L. acidophilus
L. fermentum
L. casei
L. plantarum
L. rhamnosus
↓b-cell injury
L. plantarum
Anti-inflammatory
L. reuteri
L. acidophilus
L. fermentum
L. casei
L. salivarius
L. plantarum
L. rhamnosus
↓ GLP-1 (L. reuteri)
↓ GLP-2 (L. casei)
↑ FA (L. reuteri, L. fermentum)
↑ PPARa mRNA (L. plantarum)
↓Gluconeogenic genes (L. rhamnosus)
↑Lactate¬† (all spp.)
[22,24,43,44,81,211-224]  
Genus
Bacillus
↑ T2D
B. caccae
↓ Insulin resistance Anti-inflammatory
B. caccae
B mesentericus
  [25,225-227]
Genus
Clostridium
↓ T2D
Clostridium cluster XIV
Clostridium cluster IV
Clostridium coccoides
Clostridium leptum group
↑ T2D
Clostridium difficile
↓ Plasma glucose Anti-inflammatory
C. butricum
Pro-inflammatory
C. difficile
Clostridium cluster XIV
↑ Butyrate
Clostridium cluster XIV
[25,227-234]
Genus Faecalibacterium ↓T2D
F. prausnitzii
  Anti-inflammatory
F. prausnitzii
↑ Butyrate Faecalibacteriumprausnitzii [235]
Genus
Roseburia
↓T2D
Roseburiaintestinalis
↓T1DM
  Anti-inflammatory
Roseburiaintestinalis
Roseburiafaecis
↑ Butyrate
R. cecicola, R. intestinalis, R. hominis
[22,74,235,236]
Genus Eubacterium ↓ T1DM (BBDP mice)
↓ T2D
Eubacteriumrectale
↓ Insulin resistance
E. hallii
Anti-inflammatory
Eubacteriumrectale
↑ Butyrate
E. rectale, E. ventriosum, E. hallii
[235]
Genus
Ruminococcus
↑ T1DM (BBDP mice)   Anti-inflammatory   [27,235]
Phylum Bacteriodetes
Genus
Bacteroides
↓T1DM
↓ T2D
↑ Circulating Glucose Anti-inflammatory
B. fragilis
  [27,226,235]
Genus
Prevotella
↓ T1DM
↓ T2D
  Anti-inflammatory ↓Mucin [22,23,74,229,235,237]
Phylum Proteobacteria
Genus
Escherichia
↑ T2D ↑ Insulin resistance Pro-inflammatory
E. coli k88
Anti-inflammatory
E. coli Nissle
  [22,23,74,236,237]
Table 1: The role of gut microflora and their metabolites in diabetes, insulin signaling and inflammation.