
Neonates born from
lean controls
(n=175) 
Neonates born from
overweight or obese mothers
(n=70) 


Mean±SD 
Min 
Max 
Mean±SD 
Min 
Max 
p value 
Gestational Age (wks) 
38.77±1.11 
36 
41 
38.72±1.20 
36 
41 
0.791 
Birth Weight (g) 
3313.03±566.26 
1720 
4760 
3429.71±506.24 
2260 
4710 
0.135 
Length (cm) 
50.07±2.12 
41 
55.50 
50.4±2.03 
46 
55 
0.362 
Head Circumference (cm) 
34.62±1.54 
31 
38.50 
35.02±1.47 
30.50 
38 
0.066 
APGAR 1 min 
9.16±0.58 
7 
10 
8.97±0.79 
5 
10 
0.042 
APGAR 5 min 
9.95±0.23 
8 
10 
9.88±0.46 
7 
10 
0.130 
Weight at discharge (g) 
3156.53±527.86 
2030 
4710 
3362.19±525.74 
2130 
4550 
0.036 
Age at discharge (days) 
4.20±1.25 
3 
15 
4.26±0.89 
3 
7 
0.758 
F2IsoPs CB (pg/ml) 
116.75±89.11 
0.00 
569.00 
107.19±86.38 
0.00 
539.00 
0.450 

Absolute frequencies (n) 
Percentage (%) 
Absolute frequencies (n) 
Percentage (%) 
p value 
AGA 
114 
65.1 
51 
72.9 
0.307 
LGA 
30 
17.1 
12 
17.1 
SGA 
31 
17.7 
7 
10 
BMI, Body Mass Index; F2IsoPs, F2 Isoprostanes; AGA, Appropriate for Gestational Age; LGA, Large for Gestational Age; SGA, Small for Gestational Age.
Data are means ± standard deviation, minimum and maximum for continuous variables; absolute frequencies and percentage for categorical variables.
BMI before and at the end of pregnancy was calculated according to the standard definition [weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters (kg/m^{2})].
Newborns were subdivided in large (LGA), appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) according to respective national growth charts [1618]. 
