Lean controls
(n=175)
Overweight or obesity mothers
(n=70)
 
  Mean±SD Min Max Mean±SD Min Max p value
BMI before pregnancy 21.20±1.93 15.80 24.80 28.06±4.03 22.10 39.60 0.000
BMI before delivery 25.85±2.34 18.80 29.70 33.06±3.15 27.10 43.30 0.000
Body weight increase (kg) 13.19±4.00 3 25 13.45±6.34 -12 26 0.716
Maternal age at delivery (years) 32.57±5.61 20 49 33.02±4.65 22 43 0.553
  Absolute frequencies (n) Percentage (%) Absolute frequencies (n) Percentage (%) p value
Hypertension 5 2.9 3 4.3 0.412
Chorioamnionitis 0 0 0 0 n.c.#
Mode of delivery Vaginal delivery 92 52.6 30 42.9 0.074
Cesarean section 78 44.6 40 57.1
Smoking Not smoking 151 86.3 60 85.7 0.672
< 10 cigarettes/day 20 11.4 7 10
≥ 10 cigarettes/day 4 2.3 3 4.3
Alcohol consumption No 167 95.4 66 94.3 0.425
Occasionally* 2 1.1 2 2.9
Rarely** 2 1.1 0 0
Parity 1 86 49.1 36 51.4 0.218
2 67 38.3 25 35.7
3 15 8.6 5 7.1
4 or more 2 1.1 4 5.7
*Once-twice a week
**Once-twice a month
# Not countable
BMI, Body Mass Index
Data are means ± standard deviation, minimum and maximum for continuous variables; absolute frequencies and percentage for categorical variables
BMI before and at the end of pregnancy was calculated according to the standard definition [weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters (kg/m2)]
Table 2: Baseline features of mothers during pregnancy.