
Lean controls
(n=175) 
Overweight or obesity mothers
(n=70) 


Mean±SD 
Min 
Max 
Mean±SD 
Min 
Max 
p value 
BMI before pregnancy 
21.20±1.93 
15.80 
24.80 
28.06±4.03 
22.10 
39.60 
0.000 
BMI before delivery 
25.85±2.34 
18.80 
29.70 
33.06±3.15 
27.10 
43.30 
0.000 
Body weight increase (kg) 
13.19±4.00 
3 
25 
13.45±6.34 
12 
26 
0.716 
Maternal age at delivery (years) 
32.57±5.61 
20 
49 
33.02±4.65 
22 
43 
0.553 

Absolute frequencies (n) 
Percentage (%) 
Absolute frequencies (n) 
Percentage (%) 
p value 
Hypertension 
5 
2.9 
3 
4.3 
0.412 
Chorioamnionitis 
0 
0 
0 
0 
n.c.^{#} 
Mode of delivery 
Vaginal delivery 
92 
52.6 
30 
42.9 
0.074 
Cesarean section 
78 
44.6 
40 
57.1 
Smoking 
Not smoking 
151 
86.3 
60 
85.7 
0.672 
< 10 cigarettes/day 
20 
11.4 
7 
10 
≥ 10 cigarettes/day 
4 
2.3 
3 
4.3 
Alcohol consumption 
No 
167 
95.4 
66 
94.3 
0.425 
Occasionally^{*} 
2 
1.1 
2 
2.9 
Rarely^{**} 
2 
1.1 
0 
0 
Parity 
1 
86 
49.1 
36 
51.4 
0.218 
2 
67 
38.3 
25 
35.7 
3 
15 
8.6 
5 
7.1 
4 or more 
2 
1.1 
4 
5.7 
^{*}Oncetwice a week
^{**}Oncetwice a month
# Not countable
BMI, Body Mass Index
Data are means ± standard deviation, minimum and maximum for continuous variables; absolute frequencies and percentage for categorical variables
BMI before and at the end of pregnancy was calculated according to the standard definition [weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters (kg/m^{2})] 
