Reference No. of Subjects (males) Age (ys) HbA1c (%) (pre/post) Insulin doses/day Intervention Outcome
Huttunen et al. [130] 34 (20)
16 EG
16 CG
11.9 (8-17) EG: 9.8 ± 2.3→ 10.5 ± 2.5
CG 9.4 ± 2.1→ 9.7 ± 2.2
NA 45 min, 1/wk, 12 wks, aerobic exercise, heart rate 150 bpm (jogging, running, gymnastics) vs. a non-training group. [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - Blood glucose and glucosuria did not change significant HbA1c levels ↑significant
- VO2max (pre→post exercise): 40.0 ± 7.2 → 43.8 ± 8.6 ml.min-1.kg-1
Rowland et al. [131] 14 T1D (7) 9-14 9.9 ± 1.4 → 10.1 ± 1.1 NA 1h, 3/wk, 12 wk aerobic (running/walking) exercise. [DA+, IA-]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - VO2max ↑sign (38.4 ± 4.6 → 41.9 ± 6.0 ml.min-1.kg-1)
- HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and glucosuria (24h) did not change significant
Wong et al. [194] 12 EG (4)
11 CG (2)
12.3 ± 2.07 CG: 8.1 ± 1.1
EG: 8.2 ± 1.4
NA 12 wks, 3d/wk aerobic (40-60% VO2max), 30 min. [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - 9 month FU → aerobic exercise group had lower HbA1c levels than self-directed group.
- No changes in VO2max.
Bernardini et al. [142] 91 T1D (50) 14.8 ± 2.7 < 60 min/wk:
8.9  ± 0.5
120 -360 min/wk:
8.3 ± 0.4
360-480 min:wk:
8.0  ± 0.6
NA Prospective cohort study: aerobic activity defined as: walking, cycling, skating and swimming during the last 6 months. [DA/IA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - Minutes of exercising is inversely correlated with HbA1c. (60 min significant with 120-360 min and 360-480 min).
Marrero et al. [125] 10 T1D (6) 13.3 (12-14) Pre→post: 10.1 ± 1.9 → 9.2 ± 2.2 NA Non-supervised aerobic home exercise protocol: 45 min, 3/wk, 12 wks (heart rate 160 bpm). [IA-, DA+]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - HbA1c levels ↓ significant
- VO2max ↑significant (40.4 ± 8.8 → 44.9 ± 12.9 ml.min-1.kg-1)
Michaliszyn et al. [126] 12 T1D 12-19 9.4 ± 1.8 → 9.4 ± 2.0 NA 60 min, 5 day/wk, 16 wk (60-75% of their predicted peak heart rate) in a home based program. [IA/DA NA]. - HbA1c did not change significant No measurement of VO2max.
Ruzic et al. [127] 20 T1D (NA) 12.8 ± 2.1 (9-16) Pre→post: 8.3 ± 1.3 → 7.9 ± 1.4 3.6 ± 0.6 IU.day-1
0.9 ± 0.2 IU.kg-1.day-1
High volume, low intensity program → 60 min, <75% of HRmax, 2 x 5 days, 3x/day, exercise camp for children. [IA/DA-]. [PP] - HbA1c sign ↓ 10 days after camp, but significant ↑ 2 months after training
- Blood glucose values ↓ significant the last days of training session
- No VO2max levels were shown.
Sideraviciute et al. [128] 19 T1D (0) 14-19 8.5 ± 0.4 → 7.8 ± 0.3 Short term: 26.4 ± 1.8 IU.day-1→ 25.0 ± 7.8 IU.day-1 Long term swim (aerobic) training: 45 min, 2/wk, 14 wks. [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - HbA1c ↓ significant
- Daily short acting insulin dose ↓ significant after exercise program.
- No VO2max levels were shown.
Laaksonen et al. [120] 20 T1D (20) 32 ± 5.7 pre→post:  8.2  ± 1.1 → 8.0 ±1.0 CG→EG:  8.5 ±  1.6 → 8.0 ± 1.0 Pre→post training: 0.7  ±  0.2 → 0.7 ± 0.2 IU.kg-1.day-1 CG→EG:
0.7 ± 0.2 → 0.7 ± 0.2 IU.kg-1.day-1
1 wk, 20-30 min, 50-60%  VO2peak gradually increased to 12-16 wks, 30-60 min, 3-5/wk, 60-80% VO2peak aerobic training program. [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - VO2max significant ↑in training group (43.4 ± 8.0 → 46.1 ± 6.6 ml.min-1.kg-1)
- HbA1c ↓ with training and compared to control group
Lehmann et al. [121] 20 T1D (13) 33 ± 7.7 (22-48) 7.6 ± 4.4 → 7.5 ± 4.0 48.4 ±  15.1 → 40.4 ±   13 IU.day-1 3 x /wk, min 45 min, 3 months of regular endurance exercise,. 50- 70 % VO2max. [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - Total insulin (IU/day) ↓ significant
- HbA1c did not ↓ significant
- VO2max increased significant (2914 ± 924→ 3092 ± 905 ml/min).
Ramalho et al. [122] 7 T1D (2) 19.8 ± 5.1 8.7 ± 1.6 → 9.8 ± 1.8 0.95 ± 0.3 → 0.79 ± 0.3 IU.kg-1.day-1 40 min run or walk, first 2 wks: 60-70% HRmax, 3-6th week= 70-80% HRmax, 7-12thweeks= 70-90% HRmax, 3/wk, 12 wks, aerobic training. [IA+, DA+]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - No difference in lipid profile or fasting blood glucose before and after the exercise program, while the HbA1c increased.
- Self-monitored blood glucose levels, measured before and after each session, showed a significant ↓ post compared to pre exercise training.
Wallberg – Henrikson, [123] 6 EG (NA)
7 CG (NA)
63 ± 2
35 ± 2
10.4 ± 1.5
10.6 ± 1.6
32 ± 2 IU.day-1
43 ± 5 IU.day-1
20 min of daily bicycle exercise during 5 months vs. non training.  [IA/DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - VO2max ↑significant (pre→post training: 30.2 ±2.1 → 32.7 ± 2.1 ml.min-1.kg-1)
- HbA1c did not change significant after training
Zinman et al. [124] 13 T1D 30.0 ± 1.8 10.7 ± 0.3 → 10.3 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 3.2 IU.day-1 45 min aerobic exercise, 3/wk, 12 wks (60-85% of their VO2max). [IA-DA- (daily routines)]. Exercise ~ 45 -135 min after insulin injection. - VO2max.increased sign (33.8 ± 1.7 → 40.0 ± 4.0 ml.min-1.kg-1)
- [P] FGL and HbA1c did not significant change
Data are presented as mean ± SD; No. of Subjects (males) = total number of subjects and the number between brackets are the number of males; [P]FGL: Fasting Glucose Levels; EG: Exercise Group; CG: Control Group; FU: Follow Up; T1D: Type 1 Diabetes; NA: Not Applicable; [VP]: Venous Plasma Glucose; [V]: Venous Whole blood; [P]: Plasma; [C]: Capillary; IA: Insulin Advice before/after Exercise; DA: Dietary Advice before/during or after Exercise; ↓: Decrease; [PAS]: Post Absorptive State (5-11h after last meal); [PP]: Post Prandial (during 4h after meal); [FS]: Fasting State (> 12h after meal); HbA1c: Glycaeted Haemoglobin; VO2max: Maximal Oxygen Uptake; VO2peak: Peak Oxygen Uptake; HRmax: Maximum Heart Rate
Table 2: Effects of aerobic training on glycaemic control in T1D patients. (Table based on [100]).