Reference No. of Subjects (males) Age (ys) Characteristics Intervention Outcome
HbA1c(%) Insulin doses/day   -
Bussau et al. [113] 7 T1D (7) 21 ± 3.5 7.4 ± 0.8 NA 40% VO2peak for 20 min on a cycle ergometer then immediately engaged in a maximal 10-s cycling sprint (sprint trial) or rested (control trial). [IA -, DA-]. [PP]. Exercise ~ 109 ± 10 min after insulin injection. - Moderate intensity resulted in a significant fall in glycaemia in both trials ( 3.6 mmol/L for sprint training, 3.1 mmol/L for moderate training).
Guelfi et al. [110] 7 T1D (4) 21.6 ± 4 7.4 ± 1.5 14.8 ± 7.5 IU.day-1 30 min continuous cycling exercise at 40% VO2peak, interspersed with 16x 4-s maximal sprint efforts [IA -, DA-] compared to 30min continuous cycling at 40% VO2peak. [PP]. Exercise ~ 3.5h after insulin injection. - Glucose production = ↑ in MOD+HIE vs MOD
- Glucose utilization = ↓ MOD vs MOD+HIE
Guelfi et al. [103] 9 T1D (5) 22.6 ± 5.7 7.7 ± 0.8 NA 30 min continuous cycling exercise at 40% VO2peak, interspersed with 16x 4-s maximal sprint efforts. [IA/DA: euglycaemic clamp]. [PP]. - High-intensity bouts associated with MOD stimulate a more rapid and greater increment in endogenous glucose production during exercise than MOD alone
Iscoe et al. [112] 5 T1D (4) 35.2 ± 3.0 7.0 ± 0.2 38.8 ± 5.1 IU.day-1 60 min exercise spinning class (high intensity). [IA-, DA-]. [PP]. - Blood glucose levels ↓ significant
Iscoe & Riddell [115] 11 T1D (5) 35.1 ± 11.6 (18-51) 7.8 ± 0.4 34 ± 5 IU.day-1 - 45 min of continuous moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 55% of their VO2peak (MOD) or continuous exercise at 50% of their VO2peak with the addition of 9x 15s bouts of 100% VO2peak, spaced 5 min apart (MOD + HIE). [IA+, DA+]. [PAS]. Exercise ~ 2h after insulin injection. - MOD and MOD+HIE causes similar reductions in glucose levels during activity
- Addition of HIE is associated with less risk for late onset post-exercise hypoglycaemia.
Harmer et al. [119] 7 T1D (5) 25 ±  4 8.6 ± 2.3 →8.1 ± 1.6 52.4 ± 3.8 IU.day-1 → 51.2 ± 4.6 IU.day-1 7 weeks of sprint training, 3/wk: 4-10, 30s all out sprints, 3-4 min rest). [IA-, DA NA]. [PAS, PP, FS = NA]. - Glucose levels ↑ significant (pre/post training).
- HbA1c levels were not significant influenced.
*Data presented as mean ± SD; No. of Subjects (males) = total number of subjects and the number between brackets are the number of males; MOD: Moderate Intensity Training; IHE/HIE: Intermittent High Intensity Exercise; NA: Not Applicable; IA: Insulin Advice before/after Exercise; DA: Dietary Advice before/during or after Exercise; T1D: Type 1 Diabetes; [VP]: Venous Plasma Glucose; [V]: Venous Whole blood; [P]: Plasma; [C]: Capillary; [IS]: Interstitial Glucose Levels; [M]: Free Muscle Glucose; ↓: Decrease; [PAS]: Post Absorptive State (5-11h after last meal); [PP]: Post Prandial (during 4h after meal); [FS]: Fasting State (> 12h after meal); HbA1c: Glycaeted Haemoglobin; VO2peak: Peak Oxygen Uptake
Table 5: Effects of HIE exercise and training on glycaemic control in T1D patients. (Table based on [100]).