Study reference Number of studies Population Total subjects Indices examined Outcomes Analysis type
Ashwell et al. (2012) 31 4 Europe 2 South America 2 Australasia 6 Asia 2 Middle-East 1 Caribbean 14 other 123,231 men 182,620 women BMI, WC, WHtR Incident and prevalent T2DM, Hypertension, Dyslipidaemia, MetS, CVD Pooled ROC analysis
Carmienke et al. (2013) 18 6 Europe 10 North America 2 Australasia 693,739 men and women BMI, WC, WHR All-cause mortality Pooled RR using categorical variables
Coutinho et al. (2011) 5 2 Europe 2 North America 1 Asia 15,923 (59% men) BMI, Central obesity defined as WC or WHR CAD mortality Individual participant meta-analysis HR by obesity tertiles
Czernichow et al. (2011) 9 Europe 82,864 (54-62% women) BMI, WC, WHR All-cause and CVD mortality Individual participant meta-analysis HR comparing upper quintiles to lower quintiles  and for a 1 SD increase in each index ROC and relative integrated discrimination improvement statistics (RIDI)
de Koning et al. (2007) 15 Not stated 258,114 (35.7% men) WC, WHR Incident CVD events Pooled RR comparing highest to lowest quantiles of WC and WHR
Huxley et al. (2008) 21 Asian (73%) Caucasian (27%) >263,000 men and women BMI, WC, WHR Prevalent T2DM, Hypertension Individual participant meta-analysis OR stratified by ethnicity
Kodama et al. (2012) 15 8 Western 7 Non-Western 120,012 (men 21-78%) BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR Incident T2DM Pooled RR for 1 SD increase in each index
Lee et al. (2008) 10 1 Europe 7 Asian 1 Caribbean 1 Iran 88,514 (54% women) BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR Incident and prevalent T2DM, Hypertension, Dyslipidaemia Pooled ROC analysis
Mohan (2008) 19 Asian (62.8%) Caucasian (36.7%) Pacific Islanders (0.5%) >173,709 (53% women) BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR Prevalent Hypertension Individual participant meta-analysis Adjusted linear regression between indices and SBP/DBP stratified by ethnicity OR for hypertension stratified by ethnicity ROC analysis stratified by ethnicity and overall pooled results
Nyamdorj et al. (2008) 16 Asia 9,095 men 11,732 women BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR Prevalent T2DM, Hypertension Individual participant meta-analysis OR for 1 SD increase in each index ROC analysis
van Dijk et al. (2012) 20 11 Europe 7 North America 1 Turkey 1 Australasia 21,139 men 24,139 women BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR Prevalent FPG, SBP, DBP, HDL-C, LDL-C, Total-C, TAG Pooled mean Pearson correlation coefficients between each index and cardiometabolic features
Vazquez et al. (2007) 32 9 Europe 12 North America 4 Asia 7 Other 72-31,702 men and women BMI, WC, WHR Incident T2DM Pooled RR for a 1 SD increase in each index
Table 1: Details of meta-analyses and cardiometabolic outcomes.