Yes No Statistical analysis
  n HbA1c (%)a n HbA1c (%)a Test statisticsb p value
Ever smoked cigarettes 28 8.6 ± 1.4 86 8.1 ± 1.0 1041.5e NS
Ever drank:            
                 beer 52 8.3 ± 1.2 62 8.2 ± 1.1 0.355 NS
                 wine 47 8.0 ± 1.1 66 8.4 ± 1.1 4.811 0.03
                 liquors 32 8.3 ± 1.3 81 8.2 ± 1.0 0.096 NS
Drunk in the previous month 22 8.3 ± 1.1 92 7.9 ± 1.1 2.381 NS
Ever used:            
                 soft drugsc 14 8.3 ± 0.9 100 8.2 ± 1.1 0.165 NS
                 hard drugsd 2 10.4 ± 1.7 111 8.2 ± 1.1 8.272 0.005
Used insulin omission/laxatives/vomiting to control body weight 9 9.0 ± 1.1 104 8.2 ± 1.1 4.189 0.04
Ever cut class 65 8.2 ± 1.2 49 8.3 ± 1.0 0.070 NS
Ever ran away from home 3 8.9 ± 2.3 111 8.2 ± 1.1 153.5e NS
NS: Difference not Statistically Significant. aaverage one year’s HbA1c values ± standard deviation, bANOVA except where stated otherwise, ccannabis, hashish, dheroin, cocaine, synthetic drugs, eMann Whitney U-test
Table 2: Metabolic control of patients with T1D according to lifetime engagement in risk behaviors.