Inflammatory Mediator

Level

Tissue

Model

Reference

TLR4

increase

monocyte

Type 1 patients

Devaraj et al. 2008

 

 

 

 

 

TLR2

increase

monocyte

Type 1 patients

Devaraj et al. 2008

 

 

 

 

 

MCP1

increase

peripheral blood

Type 2 patients

Nomura et al. 2000

increase

serum

Type 1 patients (multiple complications)

Guan et al. 2011

increase

plasma and adipose

ob/ob diabetic mice

Sartipy and Loskutoff 2003

 

 

 

 

 

RANTES

increase

peripheral blood

Type 2 diabetic patients

Nomura et al. 2000

 

 

 

 

 

TNF-α

increase

plasma and macrophage

DN (painful compared to painless)

Purwata et al. 2011

decrease

Lumbar DRG

STZ-induced rat model

Saleh et al. 2011

increase

serum

STZ-induced mouse model

Yamakawa et al. 2011

increase

DRG (mRNA)

STZ-induced mouse model

Yamakawa et al. 2011

increase

serum

DN patients compared to diabetic-no neuropathy

Doupis et al. 2009

increase

sciatic nerve

STZ-induced mouse model

Kellogg et al. 2007

increase

sciatic nerve

STZ-induced rat model

Kellogg et al. 2007

increase

serum

STZ-induced mouse model

Sharma et al .2007

increase

serum

STZ-induced rat model

Qiang et al. 1998a,b

increase

serum

STZ-induced mouse model

Sharma et al .2006

 

 

 

 

 

COX-2

increase

sciatic nerve

STZ-induced rat model

Kellogg et al. 2007

 

increase

sciatic nerve and DRG

STZ-induced mouse model

Kellogg et al. 2007

 

increase

sciatic nerve

STZ-induced rat model

Pop-Busui et al. 2002

 

 

 

 

 

IL-6

increase

sciatic nerve (mRNA)

STZ-induced mouse model

Bierhaus et al. 2004

 

increase

sural nerve

DN patients compared to control

Bierhaus et al. 2004

 

increase

DRG (mRNA)

STZ-induced mouse model

Yamakawa et al. 2011

 

 

 

 

 

IL-1α

increase

monocyte

Type 1 and 2 patients compared to controls

Giulietti et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

 

IL-8

increase

monocyte

Type-2 patients compared to control

Giulietti et al. 2007

 

 

 

 

 

NF-κB

increase

DRG, sciatic, sural nerve

STZ-induced mouse model

Toth et al. 2008

 

increase

sural nerve

DN patients compared to control

Bierhaus et al. 2004

 

increase

sciatic nerve

STZ-induced mouse model

Bierhaus et al. 2004

Table 1: