Carotenoid ratio % Standard (unsaponified) Mild saponification Strong saponification Intense saponification
MZ% 0.6 0.5 0.5 5.5
Z% 7.6 6.2 6.9 7.7
L% 91.8 93.3 92.6 86.8
L:MZ 153 186.6 185.2 15.8
MZ = meso-zeaxanthin; Z = zeaxanthin; L = lutein; Carotenoid ratio % refers to the percentage of each carotenoid in the standard. Standard (unsaponified) = unsaponified lutein standard; Mild saponification = 5% KOH at room temperature overnight; Strong saponification = 10% KOH at 45°C overnight; Intense saponification = 10% KOH at 120°C overnight. Note: only following intense saponification of the standard was L converted to MZ, reflected in an altered L: MZ %ratio
Table 1: Percentage ratios of MZ, Z and L under different saponification conditions.