Baseline (N=98) Week 24 (N=96) Week 48 (N=94) Week 72 (N=89) Week 96 (N=80)
Depression (BDI):*,†          
Depression categories, n (%):          
Ups and downs considered normal (BDI scores 1-10) 65 (66.3) 64 (66.7) 61 (67.0) 70 (80.5) 63 (78.8)
Mild mood disturbance (BDI scores 11-16) 20 (20.4) 19 (19.8) 18 (19.8) 6 (6.9) 7 (8.8)
Borderline clinical depression (BDI scores 17-20) 10 (10.2) 6 (6.3) 5 (5.5) 4 (4.6) 7 (8.8)
Moderate depression (BDI scores 21-30) 3 (3.1) 6 (6.3) 5 (5.5) 7 (8.0) 3 (3.8)
Severe depression (BDI scores 31-40) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Extreme depression (BDI scores >40) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Overall depression (BDI scores ≥17), n (%) 13 (13.3) 13 (13.5) 12 (13.2) 11 (12.6) 10 (12.5)
Mean BDI scores (SD) 8.8 (6.3) 8.5 (7.1) 8.5 (7.4) 7.6 (6.7) 7.4 (6.1)
Sexual dysfunction (MSISQ-19), n (%):‡, §, ǁ          
Primary sexual dysfunction** 31 (32.6) 27 (29.0) 27 (30.7) 21 (25.3) 23 (30.7)
Secondary sexual dysfunction** 21 (22.1) 17 (18.3) 15 (17.0) 12 (14.5) 18 (24.0)
Tertiary sexual dysfunction** 17 (17.9) 11 (11.8) 13 (14.8) 7 (8.4) 4 (5.3)
Overall sexual dysfunction 43 (45.3) 36 (38.7) 34 (38.6) 27 (32.5) 31 (41.3)
Work absenteeism:          
Patients missing at least one day from work, n (%):††,‡‡,§§,ǁǁǁ 46 (52.9) 27 (30.3) 19 (22.9) 22 (26.5) 18 (25.4)
Mean number of working days missed (SD)***, †††, *, † 45.8 (56.5) 40.6 (63.5) 21.6 (44.9) 42.3 (51.7) 38.9 (66.1)
Causes for work absenteeism, n (%):‡‡‡          
Multiple sclerosis signs 26 (56.5) 15 (55.6) 10 (52.6) 12 (54.5) 12 (66.7)
Disease relapse 16 (34.8) 8 (29.6) 3 (15.8) 6 (27.3) 5 (27.8)
Other 11 (23.9) 5 (18.5) 8 (42.1) 7 (31.8) 1 (5.6)
*Missing data at week 48, n=3; Missing data at week 72, n=2; Missing data at baseline and week 24, n=3; §Missing data at weeks 48 and 72, n=6; ǁMissing data at week 96, n=5; **One patient may be included in more than one of the following categories: primary sexual dysfunction, secondary sexual dysfunction and tertiary sexual dysfunction; Missing data at baseline and week 48, n=11; Missing data at week 24, n=7; §§Missing data at week 72, n=6; ǁǁǁMissing data at week 96, n=9; ***Missing data at baseline, n=3; Missing data at week 24, n=4; Multiresponse variable over patients missing at least one day from work.
BDI: Beck’s Depression Inventory; MSISQ-19: Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19; SD: standard deviation.
Table 2: Patients’ depression, sexual dysfunction and work absenteeism throughout the 96-week study period.