Antiasthmatic Total number Number malformed OR/RR 95% CI Number malformed OR/RR 95% CI
Any antiasthmatic 45612 1544 1.09 1.03-1.15 533 1.13 1.04-1.23
Number of drug groups              
One 24144 842 1.11 1.04-1.19 284 1.13 1.01-1.28
Two 16749 534 1.03 0.94-1.12 187 1.08 0.93-1.25
Three or more 4145 166 1.18 1.01-1.38 61 1.27 0.98-1.63
Groups of drugs              
Short-acting adrenergics 35453 1219 1.10 1.04-1.10 433 1.17 1.07-1.29
Long-acting adrenergics 8947 287 1.08 0.96-1.22 102 1.12 0.92-1.36
Inhaled gluco-corticosteroids 24594 817 1.08 1.01-1.16 281 1.11 0.99-1.25
Anticholinergics 267 11 1.24 0.62-2.21# 3 - -
Antiallergics 1709 57 1.01 0.77-1.32 18 1.01 0.63-1.61
Xanthines 214 8 1.04 0.45-7.06# 3 - -
Leukotriene receptor antagonists 512 17 1.13 0.61-1.83 5 0.97 0.32-2.27
Drug combinations              
Only short-acting adrenergics 20394 716 1.13 1.04-1.21 257 1.22 1.07-1.38
Long-acting adrenergic or glucocorticoids only 8467 270 1.07 0.95-1.21 86 1.01 0.81-1.25
Short-acting adrenergics+long-acting adrenergics or glucocorticoids 535 16078 1.07 0.98-1.67 192 1.15 0.99-1.32
Ditto+other antiasthmatics 24 598 1.24 0.82-1.86 10 1.52 0.73-2.71#
#RR as observed/expected numbers with exact 95% CI.
Table 4: Presence of relatively severe malformations or cardiovascular defects according to antiasthmatic used. Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Bold text shows statistical significance.