Figure 2: Ultramicrographs by SEM of different tissue engineered based scaffolds.
(A and B) are porous scaffolds. These types of scaffolds are porous in nature and their porosity is high. The pore size is usually between 10 to 100 μm but it may be larger. No fiber structure is visible in these scaffolds and the molecules are not arranged as fibers. The density of the pores is more than 50% in these types of scaffolds. (C to F) are fibrous or fiber based scaffolds. (C) is an amorphous scaffold which has some porosity between its fibers while (D) is a highly aligned scaffold which has lower porosity than (C). (E) is a unique highly aligned scaffold but the fibers have been polymerized and aligned in two different directions so that some of the fibers are perpendicular to others. This unique configuration of the fibers has produced large pores between the fibers. (F) is a moderately aligned scaffold in which the collagen fibers are mostly aligned but an acceptable porosity exists between the fibers. (G) is a fibrous scaffold which have been cross-linked so that the fibers have been fused together but some porosity is still preserved in the scaffold. (H) is a hybrid scaffold in which both the micro and nano structured fibers are present in the scaffold. Scale bar for A: 1 μm, B: 500 nm, C to F: 1 μm, G: 2 μm, H: 2.4 μm.