* p ≤ .05; *** p ≤ .001 |

Figure 5: Panel A and B present the Pearson correlation coefficients between competition year and winning riders’ mean km/h and time performances in time trials across
stage races. Panel C and D show the Pearson correlation coefficients between competition year and the mean proportional changes (%) per year on both performance
measures, averaged across races and across trials per year. Panel E and F show the distribution of the latter performance measures. Vertical dotted lines mark the
epo era (1990–2000), dashed lines the individual 95%–prediction interval. |