Study N Wins Years DHM
variables1
R2adj (%) explained by DHM variables2 Main explanatory
variable (r)
Outliers
(1990–2013)
            Km/h Time  
          Km/h Time Y D Y D -
1 (Lodewijkx & Brouwer, 2011) 181 Stage race 1947–2008 Y, D, B, NST, SR 84*** 98*** .79*** -.42*** -.60*** .92*** None
2 (Lodewijkx & Brouwer, 2012) 256 Stage race 1903–2011 Y, D, B, NST, SR 94*** 90*** .92*** -.31*** -.68*** .85*** None
3 (Lodewijkx & Verboon, 2013)3 62 Time trial
(50–61 km)
1934–2010 Y, D, A 58*** 56*** .77*** -.16 -.71*** .41** None
4 (Lodewijkx & Bos, 2014)3 100 Time trial (multiple winners) 1949–2013 Y, D, A 55*** 98*** .73*** -.24* -.21* .98*** Indurain (Tour, 1992)
5 (Lodewijkx, 2013)4 19 Time trial (mountain) 1958–2004 Y, CLI, A 93*** 88*** .48* .83*** .14 .94*** Berzin
(Tour, 1996)
6  (Lodewijkx & Verboon, 2014)5 324 Time trial
(all)
1933–2013 Y, D, SR 60*** 98*** .71*** -.28*** -.34*** .97*** Plaza
(Vuelta, 2005)
Notes:
1 Y = Competition year. D = Distance of stage race / trial. B = Brutality rate. NST = Number of stages in the race. SR = Stage race (Tour vs. Giro vs. Vuelta). A = Comparisons of Armstrong vs. other riders. CLI = Climbing index. Findings concern observations across the Tour, Giro, and Vuelta. 
2 % Performance differences (R2adj) explained by DHM variables. R2adj are rounded off.
3 These studies compared Armstrong's (A) time trial victories to other riders, demonstrated on flat and rolling terrain, excluded are mountain time trials.
4 We only examined mountain trials in the Tour de France.
5 Included in this study are all trials on flat and rolling terrain, excluded are prologues, mountain trials, and team time trials.
* p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001
Table 1: Main Findings of Historic Studies.