Volleyball

 

 

Control

 

 

 

Before warm-up

After warm-up

t / W

P

Before warm-up

After warm-up

t / W

P

Kinematics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO

8 (7.5-9.5)

9 (8-9)

6

0.375

8 ± 2

8 ± 1

-0.94

0.368

TD

9.09 ± 1.5

9.35 ± 1.4

-1.03

0.324

8.36 ± 1.8

8.64 ± 1.6

-1.01

0.333

PA

0.89 ± 0.1

0.90 ± 0.1

-1.23

0.245

0.90 ± 0.1

0.92 ± 0.1

-0.89

0.394

Amp1F

1.83 ± 0.2

1.84 ± 0.3

-0.12

0.910

1.73 ± 0.2

1.93 ± 0.2

-6.17

<0.001

Amp1E

0.41 ± 0.1

0.36 ± 0.1

1.28

0.226

0.45 ± 0.1

0.45 ± 0.2

-0.07

0.948

FRI

2.07 ± 0.2

2.07 ± 0.4

-0.02

0.984

1.94 ± 0.2

2.12 ± 0.2

-4.16

0.002

ERI

0.46 ± 0.2

0.41 ± 0.1

1.23

0.244

0.47 ± 0.1

0.48 ± 0.2

-0.16

0.873

D1

1.67 ± 0.3

1.79 ± 0.3

-1.55

0.149

1.57 (1.5-1.9)

1.64 (1.6-1.8)

10

0.700

D2

1.61 ± 0.4

1.62 ± 0.3

1.26

0.235

1.53 ± 0.2

1.55 ± 0.2

-0.23

0.822

D3

1.56 ± 0.2

1.62 ± 0.2

-1.48

0.168

1.63 ± 0.4

1.58 ± 0.3

0.98

0.349

Viscosity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B1

0.42 ± 0.1

0.48 ± 0.1

-1.96

0.076

0.29 (0.2-0.4)

0.34 (0.3-0.4)

13

0.577

B2

0.38 (0.3-0.4)

0.34 (0.3-0.4)

-18

0.519

0.29 ± 0.1

0.28 ± 0.1

0.23

0.820

B3

0.37 ± 0.1

0.40 ± 0.1

-1.73

0.112

0.32 ± 0.2

0.30 ± 0.1

1.06

0.312

Stiffness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

k1

3.81 ± 1.1

3.80 ± 1.2

0.09

0.927

2.84 ± 1.0

2.61 ± 0.8

1.48

0.168

k2

3.64 ± 0.6

3.66 ± 0.1

-0.12

0.911

2.55 ± 0.8

2.61 ± 0.6

-0.47

0.648

k3

3.50 ± 1.0

3.54 ± 0.9

-0.39

0.706

2.86 ± 1.2

2.88 ± 0.9

-0.12

0.909

t: Student t-test, U: Mann-Whitney test; Means ± SD or Medians (q1-q3) in italic;
significant values in bold

Table 2: Statistical results of warm-up effect on knee joint kinematic variables, stiffness, and viscosity in volleyball players and control subjects.