Clinical signs Ultrasound results Necropsy results
Direction of coxofemoral luxation No. of cases Able to stand Notable asymmetry of the hip Articular crepitus Transcutaneous
dorsolateral view
Transcutaneous
ventrodorsal view
Trans-
rectal view
Rupture of joint capsule and femoral head ligament Severe
periarticular damage
Associated fracture
BFH AJC BFH AJC BFH
Craniodorsal 5 2*/5† 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 0/2 2/2 NIA 4/4 1/4 2/4
Caudodorsal 6 1/6 2/6 4/6 6/6 3/6 6/6 6/6 NIA 6/6 6/6 1/6
Caudoventral 11 0/11 4/11 9/11 0/11 11/11 7/7 7/7 6/6 6/6 4/6 0/6
*Number of positive findings, †Number of cows evaluated, NIA No imaging attempted, BFH Diagnostic images of the ball of the femoral head, AJC Diagnostic images of the empty acetabular joint cavity
Table 1: Results of Clinical, Ultrasonographic, and Postmortem Examination of 18 Cows with Coxofemoral Luxation