Characteristic ΔRMDQ p-value ΔLBPS p-value
Age        
     <41
41-48
48-55
≥55
-4.9
-4.3
-4.5
-6.3
0.42 -2.4
-2.1
-2.3
-2.2
0.86
Race        
     Black -4.6 0.42 -2.1 0.61
     White -5.0   -2.7  
     Other -7.0   -2.5  
Hispanic
Hispanic
Non-hispanic
-7.3
-4.8
0.24 -4.0
-2.1
  0.15
U.S. Born
U.S. born
Foreign born
-4.1
-8.9
 0.003   -2.1
-3.1
  0.24
Language spoken at home
English
Other
-4.6
-7.5
0.11   -2.2
-2.6
  0.69
Insurance
Public
Private
-5.3
-4.4
0.51 -2.5
-1.0
  0.29
Education
Some high school
High school graduate
Some college
College graduate
Graduate school
-4.5
-4.8
-4.4
-5.4
-5.8
0.55 -0.9
-1.8
-2.2
-2.9
-2.6
  0.027
Income categorized
≤ $30,000
$30-70,000
> $70,000
-4.8
-6.7
-4.9
  0.73   -2.0
-3.0
-2.3
  0.63
Unemployment
Employed
Not employed
-5.4
-4.8
  0.67   -2.8
-2.0
  0.18
Pain Duration
Pain >1yr
Pain ≤1yr
-5.0
-4.8
  0.89   -2.0
-2.2
  0.12
Any medication use in the last week
Yes
No
-5.1
-4.8
  0.82   -2.2
-2.4
  0.71
Over the counter medication use
Yes
No
-5.3
-3.5
  0.34   -2.4
-1.6
  0.32
Prescription medication use
Yes
No
-5.0
-5.1
  0.93   -2.1
-2.4
  0.57
Sciatica
Yes
No
-5.2
-4.9
  0.85   -2.1
-2.4
  0.59
Satisfied with previous back pain care
Satisfied
Unsatisfied
  -4.8
-5.2
  0.79   -2.3
-2.3
  0.98
Other LBP Therapies
Trigger point injection
Yes
No
 -5.3
-5.0
  0.85   -1.9
-2.3
  0.62
Heat/ice use
Yes
No
 -4.9
-5.4
  0.75   -2.2
-2.3
  0.95
Physical therapy
Yes
No
-4.9
-5.3
  0.74   -2.1
-2.5
  0.40
Epidural injection
Yes
No
-6.0
-4.8
  0.44   -2.2
-2.3
  0.95
Surgery
Yes
No
  -7.3
-4.9
  0.33   -1.5
-2.3
  0.45
Chiropractor
Yes
No
  -4.2
-5.6
  0.27   -2.2
-2.3
  0.86
Massage
Yes
No
  -4.4
-5.5
  0.37   -2.5
-2.2
  0.56
Osteopathic manipulation
Yes
No
  -8.3
-4.8
  0.16   -2.5
-2.2
  0.80
Previous yoga use
Yes
No
  -3.1
-5.4
  0.22   -2.4
-2.2
  0.83
Any previous CAM use
Yes
No
  -4.6
-5.5
  0.47   -2.4
-2.1
  0.52
Table 2: Bivariate analysis of baseline categorical variables and change in primary outcome measures for 91 participants* enrolled in a 12-week yoga trial for chronic low back pain
*unless otherwise specified
Abbreviations:
ΔRMDQ = Change in modified Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score
ΔLBPS = Change in low back pain score
LBP = Low back pain
SF-36 = Short form 36
PCS = Physical Health Component Score
MCS = Mental Health Component Score
CAM = Complementary and alternative medicine