Organ Term Major materials
Eyes Contact lens PMMA, MPC polymer
Intraocular lens PMMA
Teeth Artificial tooth, Dental prosthesis PMMA
Cavity fill material Methacryl acid derivative polymer
Esophagus Artificial esophagus Polyethylene / Natural rubber
Heart Mechanical heart Segmented polyurethane
Prosthetic cardiac valve Pylorite carbon
Lungs Oxygenator (extracorporeal circulation) Porous polypropylene
Mamma Mammary prostheses Silicone
Liver Artificial liver Activated carbon, Porous polymer beads
Kidney Artificial kidney Cellulose, PMMA, Polysulfone
Blood vessel Artificial vessel Stretched PTFE
Hip joint Artificial joint (the part of main body) Titanium alloy, Cobalt-chromium alloy,
Ceramics (Alumina, Zirconia)
Knee joint Artificial joint (articular part) Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene
Phalangeal joint Artificial finger joint Silicone
Ligament Artificial ligament Polyester, PTFE
Bone Artificial bone Hydroxyapatite
Bone cement PMMA
PMMA; Polymethyl methacrylate
PTFE; Polytetrafluoroethylene
Table 1: Major biomaterials. Modificaton from ref [54].