Evidence Convincing Probable Possible
Substantially increased risk Cigarette smoking - -
Moderately increased risk - - -
Slightly increase risk Alcohol consumption  for men          - Pipe
Cigar
Environmental smoking
No association - Coffee, Tea, Vegetable
Vitamin A (carotenoids)
Vitamin C
Total fluid Folate
Slightly decreased riske - Fruit -
Moderately Decreased risk - Selenium Vitamin E
Substantially decreased risk - - -
Table 2: Bladder Cancer and Prevention.