Reference Year Number (if series) Age/ sex First infection Time between the two infections Leprosy spectrum (Jopling) Clinical presentation of tuberculosis Mode of diagnosis of tuberculosis Aggravating co-morbidity Clinical features at diagnosis Out come
Gajwani et al. 1968 3 60/M Tuberculosis 6 months; diagnosed simultaneously BT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Malnutrition Fever, cough, hemoptysis NA
30/M Leprosy 2 years; diagnosed simultaneously TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Fever, cough NA
60/M Tuberculosis 2 years; diagnosed simultaneously BT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Cough, expectoration NA
Gupta et al. 1971 2 50/M Leprosy 1 year; diagnosed simultaneously TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear/ culture Diabetes, CAD Asymptomatic Lepra reaction, better
25/F Leprosy 6 months; diagnosed simultaneously Euthyroid nodular goitre Fever, Cough, expectoration Better
Agnihotri et al. 1973 3 65/M Tuberculosis 1 year; diagnosed simultaneously TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP)-relapse Sputum smear Malnutrition Fever, emaciation Better
18/M Tuberculosis 4 year; relapse simultaneously diagnosed TT None Cough, expectoration, hemoptysis
30/F Leprosy 1 month TT None Cough
Bhargava et al. 1976 4 39/M Leprosy 3 years LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Fever, cough NA
50/M Leprosy 1 year LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Cough, weakness NA
45/M Leprosy 4 years LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Cough, expectoration NA
      35/M Leprosy 15 years LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Cough, expectoration NA
Premnath et al. 1976 40(in 2 years) Median 27; range 21-64 years Leprosy 1-25 years; individual data NA LL (72.5%); BL (27.5%) Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Malnutrition Cough, expectoration (87.5%), fever (57.5%), and weight loss (35%) Died (30%), LAMA (20%), Improved (50%)
Ganapathi et al. 1976 1 30/M Leprosy NA LL Cutaneous (lupus vulgaris) Histopathology None NA NA
Vachharajani et al. 1977 4 50/M Tuberculosis 4 months TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Hypopigmented anesthetic patches Better
      26/M Tuberculosis 4 months TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Single hypopigmented anesthetic patch Better
      30/M Tuberculosis 2 months LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Macular rash Better
      29/M Tuberculosis 1.5 months TT Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Multiple patches Better
Nigam et al. 1979 20 (2.5% of 793) 16-58, mean 28.4; M(15); F(5) Leprosy 10-15 years LL (15), BL (3), TT (2) Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP-16, SN-4), pleural effusion (2) Sputum smear(16); chest radiograph (4) Malnutrition Cough, expectoration (100%), fever (80%), weight loss (60%), hemoptysis (25%) Died (4); LAMA (5) Better (11)
Kaur et al. 1979 2 out of 25 (8%) Age, Sex NA Leprosy 4.2 years LL (2) SP-1 Pulmonary tuberculosis; SN-1 Sputum smear; chest radiograph Malnutrition Individual data NA NA
Gatner et al. 1980 13.4% (15 of 112 active; 8 healed) Age, Sex NA Leprosy NA LL(4), BL (3),BB(1),BT(7) Pulmonary tuberculosis SP-8; SN-7 Sputum smear; chest radiograph Malnutrition Screening 10/15 improved; rest NA
Kumar et al. 1982 9 (7.7% of 117) NA Leprosy NA LL (4), BL (3), TT (2) Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP-3, SN-6) Sputum smear (3), chest radiograph (6) NA Screening NA
Singh et al. 1987 25 (2.9% of 846) NA Leprosy NA Individual data NA Pulmonary tuberculosis Sputum, chest radiograph NA Screening NA
Saha et al. 1989 18 of 133 (13.5%) 15(M); 3(F) 15-65 Leprosy NA LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum, chest radiograph Malnutrition Screening NA
Patki et al. 1990 1 35/F Leprosy 5 years BL Multicentric lupus vugaris Histopathology None Swelling Better
Pinto et al. 1991 1 36/M Simultaneous occurrence BT Cutaneous tuberculosis Histopathology Thorn prick Warty lesion Jaundice
Inamadar et al. 1994 1 23/M Simultaneous occurrence TT Cutaneous and pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear None Patch, ulcer and discharge Type 1 reaction, better
Arora et al. 1994 1 40/M Simultaneous re-occurrence due to HIV BL Lymph nodal tuberculosis Histopathology HIV Patch, sinus Better
Agarwal et al. 2000 1 40/M Simultaneous occurrence LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear/ culture CKD, transplantation, immunosuppression Fever, cough, anesthetic patch Reaction, resolved
Srilakshmi et al. 2003 1 32/ M Leprosy 10 years LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Nil Fever, cough Dead
Lee et al. 2003 1 62/M Tuberculosis 6 months BL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear/ culture Nil Cough, expectoration Type I reversal reaction, better
Agarwal et al. 2007 1 36/F Simultaneous occurrence BL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Sputum smear Rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate, steroids leflunomide Fever, weight loss ENL, better
Sreerama Reddy et al. 2007 2 65/M Leprosy   3 months BL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP), pleural effusion Sputum smear Steroids for ulnar neuritis Cough, expectoration, chest pain Better
  2 years LL Pulmonary tuberculosis (SP) Prednisolone, thalidomide Fever, cough
Abbreviations: Male (M), Female (F), Sputum positive (SP), Sputum negative (SN), Not available (NA), Left against medical advice (LAMA), Erythema nodosum leprae (ENL), Tuberculoid leprosy (TT), Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT), Mid-borderline leprosy (BB) Borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL), Lepromatous leprosy (LL) *The numerator is the number of cases in males and the denominator is the total number of cases reported
Table 1: Summary of all reported cases of co-infection with leprosy and tuberculosis (English literature).