Variables n

Kellgren-Lawrence score

Univariate Multivariate model 3b Multivariate model 4c
Grade 2, 3, 4 Grade 1 Grade 0
(N=6) (N=132) (N=296) OR (95 CI)a OR (95% CI) OR(95%CI)
Dieary habits        
Meat consumption at 40 years of age    
none 59 12 (20%)     19 (32)     28 (47)     1 1 1
a few times a week 351 51 (15%)     94 (27)     206 (59)     0.64 (0.38-1.08) 0.75 (0.43-1.30) 0.84 (0.48-1.46)
every day 82 2 (2%)     19 (23)     61 (74)     0.29 (0.15-0.58) 0.57 (0.27-1.21) 0.70 (0.32-1.52)
p for trend         0.0004 0.139 0.361
Small fish with bones consumption at 40 years of age    
none 102 12 (12%)     25 (25)     65 (64)     1 1 1
a few times a week 289 41 (14%)     69 (24)     179 (62)     1.11 (0.70-1.75) 1.10 (0.67-1.80) 1.08 (0.65-1.80)
every day 93 11 (12%)     37 (40)     45 (48)     1.64 (0.94-2.84) 1.23 (0.68-2.21) 1.18 (0.64-2.16)
p for trend         0.079 0.499 0.592
Coffee consumption at 40 years of age    
none 256 49 (19%)     85 (33)     122 (48)     1 1 1
a few times a week 103 11 (11%)     24 (23)     68 (66)     0.47 (0.30-0.75) 0.73 (0.45-1.20) 0.75 (0.45-1.25)
every day 134   5 (4%)     23 (17)     106 (79)     0.23 (0.15-0.38) 0.44 (0.26-0.75) 0.48 (0.28-0.83)
p for trend         <0.0001 0.002 0.008
Milk consumption at school    
none 372 53 (14%)     106 (28)     213 (57)     1 1 1
a few times a week 45 5 (11%)     9 (20)     31 (69)     0.62 (0.33-1.19) 0.77 (0.38-1.57) 0.86 (0.42-1.79)
every day 74 7 (9%)     17 (23)     50 (68)     0.64 (0.38-1.08) 1.10 (0.61-1.97) 1.13 (0.61-2.08)
p for trend         0.052 0.931 0.804
Recent milk consumption  
none 81 8 (10%)     16 (20)     57 (70)     1 1 1
a few times a week 106 14 (13%)     25 (24)     67 (63)     1.39 (0.76-2.56) 1.70 (0.88-3.28) 1.82 (0.92-3.60)
every day 306 43 (14%)     91 (30)     172 (56)     1.79 (1.07-3.01) 1.37 (0.78-2.41) 1.38 (0.76-2.49)
p for trend         0.021 0.509 0.586
a OR = odds ratio, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval
b Adjusted by age.
c Adjusted by sex, age, height, weight at 40 years of age, history of treatment for knee injury, occupation, and often good posture while sitting before age 40.
Table 3: Association between dietary habits and knee OA among Japanese.