Authors &Country Study Design Sample Characteristics Length of Intervention Dropout Intervention Results
One-way Interactivity
Lombard et al. (2010) [53] Australia Cluster RCT EG: (n= 127)
Age: 40.6 ± 4.8 years
Female: 100%
Trades/University Degree: 54.3%
Weight: 73.2 ± 13.8 kg
BMI: 27.5 ± 5.1
Waist Circumference: 94.8 ± 12.6 cm CG (n:123):
Age: 40.3 ± 4.8 years
Female: 100%
Trades/University Degree: 46.3%
Weight: 74.6 ± 16.1kg
BMI: 28.1 ± 5.8
Waist Circumference: 96.8 ± 14.8 cm
12 months EG: 18
CG: 17
EG: Interactive group sessions that focused on goal setting, and behavioural change. Pedometers + text messages were given to reinforce nutrition, physical activity and behavioural change. CG: One non-interactive lecture with general dietary and physical activity guidelines. Participants were given brochures + a pedometer to use at their discretion.   Body weight:
EG:↓ 0.2 kg (95% CI: -0.9, -0.5)
CG: ↑ 0.8 kg (95% CI: 0.1, 1.5)
Effect size:-0.99
(95% CI: -1.90, -0.08) Waist Circumference:
EG: ↓ 1.3 cm (95% CI: -2.4, -0.2)
CG:↑ 0.1 cm (95% CI: -1.0, 1.2)
Effect size:Unable to calculate
Lee et al. (2011) [35] Korea Controlled clinical trial EG (n=60):
Age: 47 years
Female: 100%
College degree: 20%
Weight: 67.5 kg
BMI: 28.14 CG (n=48):
Age: 45 years
Female: 100%
College degree: 19%
Weight: 70.25 kg
BMI: 27.84
12 weeks EG: 33
CG: 26
EG: Home-based obesity-control program including exercise, diet, monthly group workshops & phone counseling, 2 health education sessions, and bi-weekly SMS messages. CG: Structured exercise intervention (three 1-h walking classes per week) with an exercise coordinator as well as the same orientation and 2 health education sessions as the EG Body weight:
EG: ↓ 1.9 kg
CG: ↓ 3.1 kg
p= 0.23
BMI:
EG: ↓ 1.1 kg/m2
CG: ↓ 1.2 kg/m2
p= 0.61 % BF:
EG: ↓ 2.6%
CG: ↓ 3.0%
p= 0.75 SMD: Unable to calculate
Two-way interactivity
Haapala et al (2009) [19] Finland RCT EG (n=62)
Age: 38.1 ± 4.7 years
Female: 79%
University degree: 95.2%
BMI: 30.6 ± 2.7
Weight: 87.5 ± 12.6 kg
Waist Circumference
98.5cm ± 10.3 cm CG (n=63):
Age: 38 ± 4.7 years
Female: 76%
University degree: 90.3%
Weight: 86.4 ± 12.5 kg
BMI: 30.4 ± 2.8
Waist Circumference: 96.6 ± 10.4 cm
12 months EG: 17
CG: 23
EG: Weight reduction program delivered via text messages weekly advising the participants to reduce their food intake and increase their PA, and report their weight daily via text messages or through the program’s website and provided immediate automatically-generated tailored feedback. CG: Participants were offered no advice on diet or PA. Intention-to-treat analysis
Body weight:
EG: ↓3.1 ±  4.9 kg
CG: ↓0.7 ± 4.7 kg
p= 0.008
SMD:-0.50
(95% CI: -0.85, -0.14) Waist Circumference:
EG: ↓ 4.5 ± 5.3 cm 
CG:↓ 1.6 ± 4.5  cm
p= 0.008
SMD:-0.59
(95% CI: -0.94, -0.23)
Patrick et al.  (2009) [6] USA RCT EG (n=39)
Age: 47.4 ± 7.1 years
Female: 76%
Weight: 89.8 ± 17.2 kg
BMI: 32.8 ± 4.3 CG (n=39)
Age: 42.4 ± 7.5 years
Female: 84%
Weight: 88.0 ± 13.1 kg
BMI: 33.5 ± 4.5
4 months EG:13
CG:13
EG: Personalized SMS and MMS messages sent two to five times daily, printed materials, and brief monthly phone calls from a health counsellor CG: Receipt of monthly printed materials about weight control. Printed material differed from that given to the EG Body weight (adjusted for baseline weight, age, sex) :
EG: ↓ 2.5 ± 0.6 kg
CG: ↓ 0.5 ± 0.6 kg
p:0.04
SMD:-3.06
(95% CI: -3.88, -2.24)
Joo et al. (2010) [32] Korea Controlled clinical trial EG (n= 410)
Age: 36.9 ± 10.4 years
Female: 52%
Weight: 74.2 ± 11.1 kg
BMI: 27.0 ± 2.7
Waist circumference:
90.5 ± 7.5 cm CG (n= 515)
Age: 41.9 ± 9.8 years
Female: 89%
Weight: 71.3 ± 11.3 kg
BMI: 28.1 ± 3.6
Waist circumference:
92.4 ± 7.8 cm
12 weeks EG: 290
CG: 338  
EG: Internet-based obesity control intervention involving educational information, plus two weekly SMS prompts, delivered via cellular phone, to reinforce healthy behaviours and access to a website which provided a weekly diet regimen, a daily food diary, and information about nutrition and exercise. CG: Visits to a local public health centre at 1 to 2-week intervals. Participants were taught behavioural modification strategy, nutrition and exercise by registered nurses, nutritionists and exercise trainers. Body weight:
EG: ↓ 1.1 ± 3.7 kg
CG: ↓ 4.7 ± 2.6 kg
p < 0.001
SMD:0.59 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.83) BMI:
EG: ↓ 0.4 ± 1.4 kg/m2
CG: ↓ 1.9 ± 1.0 kg/m2
p < 0.001
SMD:0.21 (95% CI: -0.02, 0.44) Waist circumference:
EG: ↓ 2.6 ± 4.3 cm
CG: ↓ 6.7 ± 3.1 cm
p < 0.001
SMD:0.23 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.46)
Turner-McGrievy et al. (2011) [54] USA RCT EG (n=47)
Age: 42.6 ± 10.7 years
Female: 77%
College education or less: 51%, graduate degree: 49%
BMI: 32.9 ± 4.8 CG(n=49):
Age: 43.2 ± 11.7 years
Female: 73%
College education or less: 39%, graduate degree: 61%
BMI: 32.2 ± 4.5
6 months EG:5
CG: 5
EG:  Podcast + enhanced mobile media. The latter involve the use of a diet and PA monitoring app and Twitter to connect with other study participants on a cellular phone. CG:  Podcast + a book with calorie and fat content of a variety of food Body weight:
0-3 months
EG: ↓ 2.4 ± 3.4 kg
CG:↓ 2.3 ± 3.3 kg
3-6 months
EG: ↓0.2 ± 3.0 kg
CG:↓0.3 ± 1.8 kg
p:0.88
SMD: 0.00 (95% CI: -0.40, 0.40)
Effect size (i.e., standardized mean difference) was calculated using Cohen’s d where possible
2Effect size for this cluster RCT was calculated by the study authors, after adjusting for baseline weight, age, income, education and clustering in the multivariable analysis
Legend: BMI: Body Mass Index; CI: Confidence interval; CG: Comparison Group; EG: Experimental Group; MMS: Multimedia message service; PA: Physical activity; RCT:
Randomized controlled trial; SMD: Standardized mean difference; SMS: Short Message Service
Table 2: Study characteristics of mobile-phone delivered interventions for weight loss