Study Sample Size (n) Study Population Physical Exam Tests Diagnosis Reference Standard Phase of Study Design
Beaule [4] 30
Males = 17
Females = 13
Age = 25-54
Patients with hip pain >3 months and a positive impingement sign Impingement test Labral tear and/or FAI MRA Approaching Phase I
Bird [12] 24
Males = 0
Females = 24
Age = 36-72
Patients with a documented description of lateral hip pain with elicitable tenderness over the greater trochanter Trendelenburg’s sign Gluteus medius tear MRI Phase III
Chan [5] 30
Males = 17
Females = 13
Age = 17-62
Patients with unclear intra-articular hip pain Impingement test Labral tear Arthroscopy Approaching Phase I
Martin [7] 49
Males = 25
Females = 24
Age = 18-68
Patients with the primary complaint of hip pain in the anterior, posterior, lateral, and/or groin regions FABER, impingement test Labral tear Diagnostic intra-articular injection Phase III
Mitchell [13] 25
Males = 16
Females = 9
Age = 16-56
Patients with clinical suspicion FABER Any hip joint pathology (labral tear/detachment/frayed labrum) Arthroscopy Phase III
Narvani [16] 18
Males = 13
Females = 5
Age = 17-48
Patients presenting with groin pain Internal-rotation-flexion-axial compression maneuver, Thomas test Labral tear MRA Phase III
Suenaga [17] 59
Males = 5
Females = 54
Age = 16-64
Patients with dysplastic hip OA Maximum flexion and internal rotation test, maximum flexion and external rotation test Labral tear Arthroscopy Approaching Phase I
Sutlive [15] 72
Males = 32
Females = 40
Age range not provided
Mean age = 58.6
Patients over 40, with a chief complaint of unilateral pain in the buttock, groin, or anterior thigh FABER, scour test, squat test OA Plain radiograph Phase III
Hananouchi [8] 69
Males = 15
Females = 54
Age = 27-81
Patients presenting with hip pain Impingement test Labral tear MRI Phase III
Kapron [9] 65
Males = 65
Females = 0
Age = 19-23
Asymptomatic males FABER, impingement test FAI XR Phase III
Troelsen [6] 18
Males = 18
Females = 0
Age = 32-56
Patients who underwent periacetabular osteotomy Impingement test, FABER, resisted straight leg raise Labral tear MRA Approaching Phase I
Youdas [10] 40
Males = 20
Females = 20
Age = 37-76
20 patients with confirmed OA and 20 healthy controls Trendelenburg test OA XR Phase I
Woodley [11] 40
Males = 3
Females = 37
Age = 33-78
Patients with lateral hip pain Trendelenburg test Gluteal tendon pathology MRI Phase III
Wang [14] 21
Males = 9
Females = 12
Age = 17-65
Patients with unilateral labral tears Impingement test, FABER, McCarthy test Labral tear MRA Approaching Phase I
Table 3: Summary of Study Characteristics and Phase Classification