King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Hayfaa A Wahabi is an Associated Professor in the Chair of Evidence-based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation, King Saud University (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). She is a fellow of the Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists of England and holds a PhD in maternal epidemiology from Warwick University. She published more than 20 papers in high impact journals including systematic reviews which influenced policy and practice in maternity services all over the world. She is a member of editorial board of many reputable journals.
Obesity is proven to have detrimental effect on the pregnancy outcomes. The current study is a sub-analysis from the prospective cohort study, Riyadh Birth Cohort, which investigated the prevalence and the outcomes of pregnancies complicated with pre-gestational and gestational diabetes among, other complications of pregnancy, in Saudi pregnant women. Women with recorded pre-pregnancy weight were divided into four subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI) (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) according to the WHO classification and the outcomes of obese and overweight women were compared to the outcomes of normal weight women. Obstetrical outcomes of interest including gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, induction of labour, mode of delivery, shoulder dystocia and macrosomia were compared. Data were collected from 3624 subjects with available pre-pregnancy BMI. 77 (2.1%) subject were underweight (BMI <18.5), 2213 (61.1%) were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24) and 1334 (36.4%) subject were either overweight or obese (BMI ≥24.1). Compared to the normal weight women those who were overweight or obese had increased risk of gestational diabetes, (odds ratio (OR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-3.3; P<0.0001), gestational hypertension, OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.2-3.3; P=0.005, induction of labour, OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.7; P<0.0001, caesarean section delivery, OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.1; P<0.0001, shoulder dystocia, OR 3.; 95% CI 1.1-8.66; P=0.027 and delivery of a macrosomic baby (weight ≥4.00 kg), OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.2; P<0.0001. In conclusion women who are obese are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to normal weight women.