Title: Bio-ethanol project economic & development
Osama Ibrahim is a highly-experienced Principal Research Scientist with particular expertise in the field of microbiology, molecular biology, food safety, and bioprocessing for both pharmaceutical and food ingredients. He is knowledgeable in microbial screening /culture improvement; molecular biology and fermentation research for antibiotics, enzymes, therapeutic proteins, organic acids and food flavors; Biochemistry for metabolic pathways and enzymes kinetics, enzymes immobilization, bioconversion, and Analytical Biochemistry. Dr. Ibrahim was external research liaison for Kraft Foods with Universities for research projects related to molecular biology and microbial screening and holds three bioprocessing patents. In January 2005, he accepted an early retirement offer from Kraft Foods and in the same year he formed his own biotechnology company providing technical and marketing consultation for new startup biotechnology and food companies.
The world economy depends on low –cost energy that is derived from petroleum. Because this petroleum (oil) is produced in unstable regions of the world resulted in severe price shocks and shortages that causing considerable damages to the world economy. As a result, the U.S. and many other countries sought to develop new sources of energy that would reduce oil import and improve their strategic and economic strength. Bio-ethanol is a fermentation ethyl alcohol produced by microbial fermentation processes, as opposed to synthetically produced ethanol from petrochemical sources. Bio-ethanol can be utilized as a liquid fuel in internal compulsion engines either neat or in blends with petroleum. It offers high octane, high heat of vaporization, and other characteristics that allow it to achieve higher efficiency use in optimized engine and gasoline. It has low toxicity and volatility resulting in reduced ozone formation and smog compared to conventional fuel. The main advantages of bio-ethanol are that the fuel is renewable and that is not a net contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to the fact that the biomass cultivated for bio-ethanol is able to re-fix (by-photosynthesis) the carbon dioxide produced during bio-ethanol production and consumption. Drawbacks include the fact that food crops (first generation feed stocks) and agriculture land might be used for the production of bio-ethanol and this may impact adversely on food security. However, as will be outlined in the presentation, this disadvantage can be ameliorated by using lignocelluloses materials in agriculture byproducts such as corn Stover, rice straw and bio-wasted as a second generation feed stocks for bio-ethanol production. The predominant microorganism responsible for ethanol fermentation is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but other yeasts and certain bacteria have future potential in this bio-fuel industry. The cost of bio-ethanol production is variable depending on the sources of biomass and will be presented and discussed in presentation.