King Faisal University Saudi Arabia
Title: Conversion of processed citrus wastes into nutritional components
Gamal A. El-Sharnouby has completed his Ph.D. from Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. He is the professor of food science and nutrition. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute. He is member in many professional societies. He has attended more than 20 national and international conferences and scientific symposia. He has supervised many of the Masters and Ph.D. students. He has worked as a scientific consultant for many food factories. He has participated in the development of many of the food standards. He has experience in food science and technology, functional food, natural pigments, food safety, fruits processing, determine the expire date of food for human consumption. He is a principle investigator in many food science and technology projects.
Food processing wastes may impose heavy burden on factories and cause enormous environmental problems. Citrus wastes typically are about 45-50 % of the weight of citrus original and the percentage of waste to 30-50% for vegetables and fruits in general. Natural color plays a significant role in determining the degree of consumer acceptance of the product. In addition, carotenoids (vitamin A precursor) have high nutritional values which are important for human nutrition. The efficiency of different organic solvents such as acetone 85%, hexane, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol 90% in the extraction of pigments from citrus peel was studied. Ethyl acetate is the best solvent in extracting carotenoids from citrus peel, followed by ethanol 90%.. HPLC was used to identify the extracted pigments and their components. The extracted natural pigments were mixed with different carriers such as starch, lactose, dextrin, Arabic gum, and it was noted that lactose is the best one, followed by starch compared with different tested carriers. We also found that Alpha-tocopherol was relatively more stable than butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) antioxidant (an artificial compound). Natural extracted pigments were used in food product (e.g. jelly) evaluations and gave the better values for the color, flavor and taste compared to commercial samples with artificial additives.
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