Ashwin M. Jawdekar

Ashwin M. Jawdekar

YMT Dental College and Hospital

Title: Correlates of income and income inequality with oral cancer incidence and mortality in all countries and rich countries


Ashwin Jawdekar graduated in 1997 and received master’s degree in Pediatric Dentistry in 2001 (both from University of Mumbai). He acquired MSc in Dental Public Health from KCL, and DDPH from RCS London, in 2012. He holds a PG Diploma in Hospital Administration (Medvarsity), PG Certificate in Dental Practice Management (University of Chester) and Certificate training in Clinical Dental Research Methods (University of Washington). He has international presentations and publications; authored a book, and contributed to textbooks. He received Tony Volpe Award of GCD Fund in 2013 at Harvard School of Dental Medicine. He possesses 11 years of teaching experience.


Income inequality hypothesis sustains that beyond a certain level of economic development, income inequality (the extent of uneven income distribution) is a stronger determinant of health than national income. Income inequality has been implicated in oral conditions like caries and periodontal diseases; but not sufficiently with oral cancers, although behaviours associated with oral cancer, namely smoking and alcohol abuse, result due to income disparities. This study explored the correlates of income, income inequality and oral cancer incidence and mortality in all and rich countries. Data on national income (GNI-PPP per capita), income inequality (Gini index) and oral cancer incidence and mortality (age-standardized rates) were from the World Development Indicators (2002), United Nations (2008) and GLOBOCAN (2008), respectively. Spearman’s correlation analyses were used as the data were non-normal. In all countries (n=120), GNI-PPP per capita was associated with oral cancer incidence (rho=0.33, p<0.001) but not with mortality (-0.02, p=0.818). Contrarily, Gini index was associated with oral cancer incidence (-0.36, p<0.001) and mortality (-0.32, p<0.001). In rich countries (n=22), neither GNI-PPP per capita nor Gini index were associated with oral cancer incidence or mortality (p>0.393). This study provided little support for the income inequality hypothesis in relation to oral cancer.