Biotechnology is the use of living organismsâmicrobes, plants, or animalsâto provide useful new products or processes. In a broad sense, biotechnology continues a process that is thousands of years old. Using traditional plant breeding techniques, humans have altered the genetic composition of almost every crop by only planting seeds from plants with desired traits, or by controlling pollination. As a result, most commercial crops bear little resemblance to their early relatives. Current maize varieties are so changed from their wild progenitors that they cannot survive without continual human intervention.
Scholarly journal is a peer-reviewed journal in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Scholarly journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The term Scholarly journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.
Last date updated on September, 2014