Officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City.
Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth largest economy in the world. It has a very high level of human development and enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. Italy plays a prominent role in regional and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7/G8, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, and many more. As a reflection of its vast cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is one of the most visited countries. Many journals like list of anesthesiology journals are running from Italy.
Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences. During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1564) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72) made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model. Physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-54), a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor. Carlo Rubbia received 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN. Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor and awarded 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In order to give Anesthesia in Italy it is mandatory to be a medical doctor and to obtain a fellowship from a University school of medicine. The fellowship`s duration is 5 years in a University hospital. The studies are according to the European Community guidelines and include Anesthetics, pain control, Hyperbaric medicine and critical care medicine.