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Margarita G. Papazahariadou
Faculty of Health Sciences
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
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Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science is an academic journal providing an opportunity to researchers and scientist to explore the advanced and latest research developments in the field of Animal Sciences, Animal Health and Behavioural Science and related academic disciplines.
Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science is an open access journal; all the articles are peer reviewed by eminent researchers in the field. Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science journal strives to publish and get a worthy impact factor by quick visibility through its open access guiding principle for world class research work. Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science is one of the best journals among nutrition and food sciences having good reach to researchers and scientific community.
Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science welcomes studies in animal nutrition, growth and development, behaviour and welfare, genetics and breeding, health, livestock science and reproduction, and biotechnology.
This scholarly journal is using Editorial Manager® System for online manuscript submissions, review and tracking. Editorial board members of Journal of Animal Health and Behavioral Science are active and rapid in assigning minimum two independent reviewer’s, on approval followed by the editors decision. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the Editorial Manager® System for rapid process and transparency as well. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.
OMICS International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS International hosts over 700+ leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organizes over 3000 International Conferences all over the world. OMICS International journals have over 15 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 50000 eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS International signed an agreement with more than 1000 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access. OMICS International Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations.
Animal science is also known as animal bioscience. It is about the study of biology of animals under the control of humankind. Animal science work is to provide strong background of science but also hands-on experience working with animals on campus-based farms. The animal sciences major offers an opportunity to apply animal biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and other life sciences to the study of animal breeding and genetics, nutrition, physiology, growth, behaviour, and management. Animal science prepares students for the career opportunity in the field of animal breeding, food and fiber production, nutrition, animal agribusiness, animal behavior and welfare, and biotechnology. And in a typical animal science program there are courses like genetics, microbiology, nutrition, reproduction. There are also other courses in support areas such as genetics, soils, agricultural economics and marketing, legal aspects, and the environment. All of these courses are essential to entering in an animal science profession. The animal sciences major offers an opportunity to apply animal biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and other life sciences to the study of animal breeding and genetics, nutrition, physiology, growth, behavior, and management.
Animal welfare means how an animal is managed with the condition in which it lives or animal welfare refers to the relationship people have with animals and the duty they have to assure that animals under their care are treated responsibly. Animal welfare denotes the desire to prevent unnecessary animal suffering. Protecting an animal welfare means that providing for its physical and mental needs. This science uses various measures like longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behaviour, physiology, and reproduction. Animal welfare was a concern of ancient civilization but in the 19th century in Britain animal welfare take a larger place in western public policy. In the 21st century, animal welfare is a significant focus of interest in science, ethics, and in organizations like animal welfare.
Applied animal behaviour basically publishes the information on the behaviour of domesticated and utilized animals. This science includes the behaviour of various animals such as behaviour of farm, zoo and laboratory animals in relation to animal welfare and management; behaviour of companion animals in relation to behavioural problems etc. These are the methodological studies within relevant fields.
Like humans, animals are also prone to illness and there is a need of prevention of diseases and medicines for the treatment. AHI supports its members for the ongoing research, production and distribution of animal medicines, which fall into three primary categories: Biologics – commonly known as vaccines Pesticides – primarily flea and tick products Pharmaceuticals – covering a variety of medicines for the treatment of various animal diseases. The development of numerous medicines by the scientists has resulted in great improvements in the prevention and treatment of various animal health issues. New diagnostic tests and medical equipment specifically for animals are being developed leading to better treatments and more options for veterinarians and pet owners. AHI’s member companies, provides various pharmaceutical, biological and chemical products that keep animals healthy. But these medicines can only be marketed after undergoing government review process and approval by the federal regulatory agency. Animal medicines are also an important link in the food safety chain, and must be approved by the appropriate federal agency: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in case of pharmaceuticals; the U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA) in case of vaccines; the EPA in case of pesticides.
Animal vaccines are used for the prevention of diseases occurring in animals. Regular vaccination of animals reduces the chances of transmission of microorganisms in the animal population as well as animal suffering. The purpose of using animal vaccines is to prevent or reduce diseases in animals, hence promoting optimal patient, herd and public health. Animal vaccines are part of veterinary biologics (VB) and the products work primarily through the stimulation of the immune system in order to prevent or treat diseases. Veterinary biologics are regulated by the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) in the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Livestock animals, such as turkeys, chickens and cattle, are vaccinated to protect against diseases such as rotavirus, E. coli, pinkeye and brucellosis.
Animal nutrition concentrates on the dietary needs of domesticated animals, fundamentally those in food production and agriculture. Meeting domesticated animals nutritious requirements is critical in keeping up adequate execution of neonatal, developing, completing and rearing animals. All living organisms require specific essential nutrients to fulfill the biological processes connected with tissue maintenance and repair, for growth and for all other productive activities including reproduction, lactation or work. Dissimilar to green plants, animals cannot capture solar energy and combine this with basic elements to provide nutrients yet should depend on finding, ingesting and processing appropriate encourages to fulfill their requirement. Most potential feeds have complex chemical structures that must be broken down (digested) into simple compounds before they can be taken into (absorbed) and utilise inside the animal body. This process includes the ingestion of feeds, the physical and chemical reduction to simple products for absorption from the digestive tract and the subsequent elimination of indigestible residues. Chemically, digestion involves a hydrolytic reaction splitting large molecules until they are reduced to very small components that can pass across the intestinal lining into the body. Combinations of voluntary and involuntary mechanisms under both neural and endocrine controls and with acceleration by enzyme catalysts manage these procedures.Also crucial to the nutrition program for animals is water. Livestock may have health problems resulting from substandard quality water. Consuming water is more important than consuming food. A successful livestock enterprise requires a good water supply, in terms both of quantity and quality. Safe supplies of water are absolutely essential for livestock. If livestock do not drink enough safe water every day, intake of feed (roughages and concentrates) will drop, production will fall and the livestock producer will lose money.
Types of Nutrition in Animals
The system by which Organism obtain food is referred to as the methods of nutrition. The organisms either synthesize their own food or get nourishment arranged by different living beings in different ways. There are essentially two methods of nutrition in animals - autotrophic and heterotrophic.
“Auto” means self and "trophic" means food.In this way, the living beings, which integrate their own particular nourishment utilizing CO2, are known as the autotrophs and the procedure is called autotrophic nutrition. Autotrophs include every green plant and a few microorganisms such as the nitrifying bacteria.
“Hetero” refers to other or different and "trophic" refers to food. Subsequently, the living beings that acquire their food from different organism are called heterotrophs and the way toward getting the nourishment from different organism is called heterotrophic nourishment. All heterotrophs depend directly or indirectly on the autotrophic organisms for their food and energy requirements. Heterotrophs include most of the bacteria, fungi and all animals.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions as well as viewing behavior as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. Animal Behaviour is studied to understand the wild and wonderful ways in which animals interact with each other, with other living beings, and with the environment. It explores ways in which animals relate to their physical environment and to other organisms and also includes topics such as how animals find and defend resources, avoid predators, choose mates, reproduce, and care for their young. Since the dawn of the 21st century, many aspects of animal behaviour that the scientific community long thought it understood have been re-examined, and new conclusions reached. Animal behaviour can be important in animal training as it enables the trainer to select the individuals best suited to perform the required task.
Diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), rabies and mad cow disease are the examples of EADs. It also comprises new diseases where it is not instantly apparent what the disease is. Some emergency diseases can affect large numbers of animals for example the occurrence of Hendra virus in Queensland. A few serious animal diseases can be transferred to people for example rabies and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Animal health technicians, also known as veterinary technologists or technicians, help veterinarians in giving therapeutic consideration to animals. Veterinary technology programs are designed to prepare students for prompt employment in veterinary offices, animal hospitals, research facilities or animal shelters. Vet technicians must hold a 2-year degree in the field, while technologists are generally required to hold a baccalaureate degree. Both sorts of animal health workers must be licensed by generally states.
Farm Animal care is the phenomenon in which the animals are rared with utmost care as these animals are used for food production and other means of use. The animals are treated effectively and many procedures are adopted for ailments which are mostly found in farm animals.
Farm animals are protected from the natural disaster causing environments, from ailments and are also provided with shelter, feed, etc.
Animal Health Australia deals with the healthcare of animals in Australia. It involves in the animal health care programs and protection of the livestock and wildlife in the environment. Mainly the exotic and rare species of the animals are managed with utmost care in the given areas.
Animal Health deals with the health of animals, welfare and production. This aims at improvising the health and productivity and better utilization of the animal resources. This includes the wildlife and domestic animals of the tropical and sub-tropical agro and ecological environments.
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