Viruses gain entry into host cells via several sites such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. Once an infection has occurred, the virus may replicate in host cells at the site of infection or they may also spread to other locations. Animal viruses typically spread throughout the body mainly by way of the bloodstream, but can also be spread via the nervous system. Viruses have several methods to counter host immune system responses. Some viruses, like HIV, destroy immune system cells. Other viruses, such as influenza viruses, experience changes in their genes leading to antigenic drift or antigenic shift. In antigenic drift, viral genes mutate altering virus surface proteins. This results in the development of a new virus strain that may not be recognized by host antibodies. Antibodies connect to specific virus antigens to identify them as 'invaders' that must be destroyed. While antigenic drift happens gradually over time, antigenetic shift occurs rapidly. In antigenetic shift, a new virus subtype is produced through the combination of genes from different viral strains. Antigenetic shifts are associated with pandemics as host populations have no immunity to the new viral strain. Online journals follow a systematic pattern with a particular style which is universally followed to avoid confusion. All the information should be unbiased, readily proven and can be challenged in any kind of situation. Each and every fact should be made clear by providing proper evidence thereby encouraging true scholar and safeguarding copyrights. Following such stringent rules and evaluation can be costly, so publishers charge from the users who access the information, but, it will obstruct research as young researchers can afford it. Alternatively, fees can be charged from the researcher who has made the research and it can be free to the user who is interested in research thus, increasing the popularity and reputation to scholar and enhancing knowledge to user.
Last date updated on July, 2014